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HA Ch. 18 (20)


The circulatory system is comprised of the cardiovascular and lymphatic system
cardiovascular system includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood
the lymphatic system consists of lyphatic vessels and lymph
the main function of the cardiovascular system is to transport cells and dissolved materials including nutrients, wastes, and respiratory gases throughout the body
blood is a specialized fluid connective tissue
blood distributes nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to every cell in the body
blood delivers metabolic wastes to the kidneys for excretion
blood transports immunological cells that provide defense to peripheral tissues, from pathogens to toxins
blood stablizes the pH and electrolyte composition of interstitial fluid
blood's..restricts the loss of clotting reaction...fluid through damaged vessels or tissue injury
blood also stabilizes the body temp by absorbing and redistributing heat
the two primary components of blood plasma and formed elements
plasma is the liquid matrix of blood, which is only slightly denser than water
plasma contains dissolved proteins instead of the collagen, elastic, and reticular fibers found in typicaL loose CTs
formed elements are blood cells and fragments suspended in the plasma
formed elements include red blood cells (erythrocytes) white blood cells (leukocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes)
whole blood is a mixture of both the plasma and the formed elements
for clinical purposes, the compnonents of whole blood may be seperated or fractioned
whole blood is...which are characteristics that determine the sticky, cohesive, and resistant to flow...viscosity of a solution
how many liters of whole blood in the cardiovascular system are in adult males 5-6 liters
how many liters of whole blood are in the cardiovascular system in adult females 4-5 liters
whole blood has an alkaline range of 7.35-7.45
hypovolemic low blood volume
normovolemic normal blood volume
hypervolemic high blood volume
plasma accounts for about 55% of blood volume
plasma contains 92% water
differences between plasma and interstitial fluid involve the concentration of dissolved gases and proteins
dissolved oxygen concentration in plasma is...dissolved carbon dioxide concentration in interstitial fluid is... higher...higher in interstitial fluid
significant numbers of dissolved proteins in plasma
most plasma proteins are..., preventing... large and globular...them from crossing the capillary walls
three classes of plasma proteins include albumins, globulins, fibrinogens
albumins constitute 60% of the plasma proteins
albumins are the...of the major plasma proteins smallest
albumins are major contributors to the osmotic pressure of the plasma
albumins play and important role in the transportof fatty acids, steriod hormones, and other substances
globulins constitute 35% of the plasma proteins
two types of globulins are immunoglobulins and transport globulins
immunoglobulins also called...attack antibodies...foreign proteins and pathogens
transport globulins bind small ions, hormones, and other compounds such as insoluble compounds and compounds to be excreted at the kidneys
fibrinogens account for 4% of the plasma proteins
fibrinogens are the largest of the plasma proteins
fibrinogens are essential for the clotting reaction
fibrinogen molecules interact with each other to form the large, insoluble strands of fibrin, under normal conditions
fibrin fibers provide the basic framework for a blood clot
serum is the fluid that remains if fibrinogen is removed from plasma
when albumins or globulins attach to..they form... lipids that are not water-soluble...lipoproteins
lipoproteins are protein-lipid combinations that readily dissolve in plasma, thus enable insoluble lipids to be delivered to peripheral tissues
the primary source of plasma proteins is the...which... liver...synthesizes and releases more than 90% of such proteins
the major cellular components of blood are erythrocytes and leukocytes
the non-cellular formed elements of blood are the platelets which function in the clotting reaction
erythrocytes (RBC) account for slightly less than 50% of the total blood volume
hematocrit value indicates the percentage of whole blood contributed by formed elements
the hematocrit value closely approximates the volume of RBCs because blood has a content ratio of 1000 RBCs for each WBC
erythrocytes are...whose unusual shape provides anucleate, biconcave discs...strength and flexibility
the biconcave disc shape also provides a disproportionately large surface area for a cell its size, which permits rapid diffusion between the RBC cytoplasm and surrounding plasma
there are NO erythrocytes mitochondria or ribosomes
erythrocytes have red color due to presence of hemoglobin molecules
ciculation lifespan of erythrocytes 120 days
damaged or dead RBCs are recycled by phagocytes
rouleaux are the stacks formed by the RBCs due to their biconcave shape, allowing them to pass easily through small vessels
hemoglobin molecules account for more than 95% of the proteins of RBCs
hemoglobin confers RBCs with the ablitity to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
hemoglobin contains a globular protein formed from four subunits
each subunit contains a single molecule of HEME which holds an iron ion that can freely interact with an oxygen molecule
RBCs transport dissolved o2 from the lungs to the tissues
respiratory gas (o2) exchange occurs at the lungs
co2 diffuses out of the blood and o2 diffuses into the blood
transport co2 from the tissues to the lungs
respiratory gas (co2) exchange in the peripheral tissues
o2 diffuses out of the...and co2 diffues into the... blood...blood
blood types are determined by the presence or absence of specific components called surface antigens in the plasmalemmae of RBCs
three surface antigens of particular importance are assigned as A, B, and D (Rh) type A blood, type B blood, Type O blood
type A blood has surface antigen A
type B blood has surface antigen B
type O blood has neither surface antigen
Rh + blood has Rh surface antigen (D surface antigen)
Rh - blood does not have Rh surface antigen
agglutinins are antibodies that are specific to these surface antigens
during blood transfusion...occurs when... cross-reaction...antibodies within a person's plasma react with RBCs bearing foreign surface antigens
initially, agglutination occurs in which the RBCs clump together
the RBCs may also hemolyze or rupture during cross reaction
compatibility of the blood types of the donor and the recipient avoids cross reaction
leukocytes are scattered throughout the peripheral tissues
WBCs represent only a small fraction of their total population
leukocytes help defend the body against pathogens
WBCs remove toxins, wastes, abnormal or damaged cells
WBCs contain nuclei of characteristic sizes and shapes
WBCs are as large or larger than erythrocytes
two classes of leukocytes granular leukocytes and agranular leukocytes
granular leukocytes have large granular inclusions in their cytoplasm
agranular leukocytes do not have visible cytoplasmic granules
differential count of the WBC population is provided by a stained blood smear
typical microliter of blood contains 6000-9000 WBCs
leukopenia indicates inadequate numbers of leukocytes
leukocytosis refers to excessive numbers of leukocytes
the suffixes -penia and -osis are used to indicate low or high numbers of specific types of WBCs
diapedesis is the ability to move through vessel walls
WBCs can migrate across the endothelial lining of a capillary by squeezing between adjacent endothelial cells
chemotaxis is the attraction to specific chemical stimuli
WBCs are attracted to the chemical signs of inflammation or infection in the adjacent interstitial fluids, thereby drawing them to invading pathogens, damaged tissues, and other WBCs that are already in the damaged tissues
three types of granular leukocytes neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
neutrophils account for 50-70% of the circulating WBCs
neutrophil's cytoplasm is packed with pale, neutral-staning granules that contain lysosomal enzymes and bactericidal compounds
mature neutrophils have a diameter of 12-15 um, making them nearly twice the size of a RBC
a neutrophil contains a very dense, controted nucleus
polymorphonuclear leukocytes are neutrophils whose nuclei have been condensed into a series of lobes, giving them the apperance of beads on a string
neutrophils are highly mobile phagocytes which specialize in attacking and digesting bacteria
neutrophils have a short life span of about 12 hours
neutrophils are usually the first of the WBCs to arrive at an injury site
eosinophils represent 2-4% of the circulating WBCs
eosinophils have cytoplasmic granules that stain with eosin
eosinophils are similar in size to neutrophils
eosinophils have deep red granules in their cytoplasm
the eosinophils' hallmark characteristic is the bilobed nucleus
eosinophils are phagocytic cells, which are attracted to foreign compounds that have reacted with circulating antibodies
the presence of eosinophils increase dramatically during an allergic reaction or a parasitic infection
eosinophils are also attracted to damaged tissues, where they release enzymes that reduce inflammation and control its spread to adjacent tissues
basophils account for less than 1% of circulating WBCs
basophils have numerous cytoplasmic granules that stain with basic dyes
basophils migrate to injury sites and cross the capillary endothelium to accumulate within the damaged tissues where they discharge their granules into interstitial fluids
basophil's granules contain histamine and heparin
histamines are compounds that dilate blood vessels
heparin are compounds that prevents blood from clotting
when basophil's granules are released, they increase the capillary and venule permeability resulting in increased inflammation response at the injury site
basophils also release chemicals that stimulate mast cells and attract other basophils and other WBCs to the inujured area
two types of agranular leukocytes monocytes and lymphocytes
monocytes represent 2-8% of the WBC population
monocytes are the largest of the WBCs (16-20 um in diameter)
monocytes are about 2-3x the diameter of a typical RBC
monocytes are almost spherical in shape
monocytes are relatively easy to identify by their size and shape of nucleus which is typically a large oval or kidney bean shaped nucleus
monocytes become free macrophages when they leave the bloodstream and enter peripheral tissues
during the monocytes phagocytic action, they release chemicals that attract and stimulate other monocytes and other phagocytic cells
lymphocytes account for 20-30% of the WBC populations
lymphocytes typically appears as having very little cytoplasm that forms a thin halo around a relatively large, round purple-staining nucleus
lymphocytes are usually slightly larger than RBCs
lymphocytes are the primary cells of the lymphoid system
lymphocytes are responsible for specific immunity
the lymphoid system is a network of special vessels and organs that are distinct from, but connected to those of the cardiovascular system
specific immunity is the body's ability to mount a counterattack against invading pathogens or foreign proteins on an individual basis
three groups of lymphocytes include t cells, b cells, and NK cells
t cells enter peripheral tissues and attack foreign cells directly
b cells differentiate into plasmocytes that secrete antibodies that attack foreign cells or proteins in distant portion of the body
NK cells or...are cells that are responsible for... natural killer cells...immune surveillance
immune surveillance is a process which destroys abnormal tissue cells
t cells and b cells cannot be distinguished with the light microscope
platelets are flattened, membrane-enclosed packets of cytoplasm which appear round when viewed from above and appear spindle-shaped when viewed in section
platelets are sometimes referred to as thromobocytes although platelets technically are not cells
megakaryoctyes are enormous cells that shed their cytoplasm in membrane-enclosed packets which are released into the blood circulation
a mature megakaryocyte produces around 4000 platelets
platelets are continually replaced
circulation life span for megakaryocytes of 10-12 days
an average of...plateltes per 1 ul of blood 350,000
thrombocytopenia is an abnormally low platelet count which indicates excessive platelet destruction or inadequate platelet production
thrombocytosis is an excessive platelet count which indicates accelerated platelet formation in response to infection, inflammation or cancer
hemostatis is a process that prevents the loss of blood through the walls of damaged vessels
platelets are one of the components in a vascular clotting system that also includes plasma proteins and the cells and tissues of the circulatory system
platelets transport chemicals that are important to the clotting reaction
platelets release enzymes and other factors to initate and control the clotting process
platelets form a temporary patch in the walls of damaged blood vessels
platelets form a platelet... plug by clumping together at the injury site, thereby reducing the rate of blood loss while clotting occurs
after clot formation has occured, there is...which reduces the... active contraction...size of the break in the vessel wall
platelets contain filaments of actin and myosin that allow them to produce contractions
hemopoiesis is the process of blood cell formation
embryonic blood cells differentiate into stem cells that produce blood cells by their divisions
the bone marrow becomes the primary site of blood cell formation in adults
stem cells, called....or...divide to give... pluripotential stem cells...hemocytoblasts...rise to all the blood cells
pluripotential stem cells give risse to two multipotential stem cell lines (multipotential myeloid stem cells and multipotential lympoid stem cells)
multipotential myeloid stem cells divide to form five different types of stem cell lines, each with relatively restricted functions
2 of the stem cell lines (myeloid stem cells) produce RBCs and megakaryocytes
the other 3 stem cell lines (myeloid stem cells) give rise to the various forms of WBCs
multipotential lymphoid stem cells divide to form two different types of stem cell lines, each wih relatively restricted functions as well
one stem cell line (lympoid stem cells) ultimately forms plasmocytes
the other stem cell line (lymphoid stem cells) forms t cells
erythropoiesis is the formation of erythrocytes or RBCs
erythropoiesis occurs primarily within the red bone marrow in adults
normal erythropoiesis in myeloid tissues requires adequate supplies of amino acids, iron, and vitamen B, a vitamin obtain from dairy products and meat
erythropoiesis stimulating hormone is a hormone that regulates erythropoiesis
EPO is produced and secreted under hypoxic conditions, mainly in the kidneys
EPO stimulates increased rates of cell division in erythroblasts and in the stem cells that produce erythroblasts
EPO increases the rate of RBC maturation mainly by accelerating the rate of hemoglobin synthesis
erythroblasts are very immature RBCs that are actively synthesizing hemoglobin
reticulocytes are mature RBCs that have just shed their nuclei
reticulocytes are maturation process last step
reticulocytes enter the blood circulation
reticulocytes gradually develop the apperance of mature erythrocytes (RBCs)
leukopoiesis is the production of leukocytes or WBCs
stem cells for the production of the originate...bone marrow
granulocytes... their development in the complete...bone marrow
monocytes...their differentation in the... begin..bone marrow
monocytes go from bone marrow to the blood circulation
monocytes finally complete their development when they become free macrophages in peripheral tissues
lymphopoiesis is the production of lymphocytes
lymphocyte's stem cells originate in the bone marrow also, but many of them subsequently migrate to the thymus
primary lymphoid organs the bone marrow and thymus producte daughter cells destined to become specialized lymphocytes
in the bone marrow, lymphocytes produce immature B cells and NK cells
in the thymus, lymphocytes produce immature T cells
the immature cells may subsequently migrate to secondary lymphoid structures such as the spleen, tonsils, or lymph nodes
regulating factors for lymphocyte maturation have yet to be fully understood
colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) collective group of several hormones involved in the regulation of other WBC populations
commercially available CSFs have a clinical use in cancer chemotherapy in that they stimulate the production of WBC
Created by: handrzej



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