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BIO202 - Ch 16 - Pancreas - Marieb/Hoehn - RioSalado - AZ

The __ gland is a mixed gland composed of both endocrine & exocrine gland cells. Pancreas
__ cells, forming the bulk of the pancreas, produce enzyme-rich juice for the small intestine. Acinar
The pancreatic islets produce which hormones? Alpha (a) = glucagon & Beta (b) cells = insulin
Alpha cells of the pancreatic islets produce what? Glucagon
Beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce what? Insulin
Insulin is a __ glycemic hormone. hypo
Glucagon is a __ glycemic hormone. hyper
The major target of glucagon is the __. Liver
When glucose levels fall, alpha cells do what? Secrete glucagon
Rising blood glucose levels suppress? Glucagon release
Insulin is cleaved from a polypeptide chain called __. Proinsulin
Insulin inhibits breakdown of __ to __. Glycogen to glucose
Insulin __ glucose levels & glucagon __ them. Lowers, raises
Insulin does what in the body? Causes glucose to be used for energy, converts extra to glycogen or fats, & promotes protein synthesis & fat.
Pancreatic beta cells are stimulated to secrete __ due to increase glucose levels. Insulin - causes secretion of this hormone
What, besides glucose levels, triggers insulin release? Release of acetylcholine by parasympathetic nerve fibers.
Somatostatin __ insulin release. depresses
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) results from __ of insulin. hyposecretion or hypoactivity of insulin.
When insulin is absent or deficient, blood glucose __. levels remain high after a meal because glucose cannot enter most tissue cells.
What is glycosuria? In diabetes mellitus, where excess glucose is excreted in urine.
What is lipidemia? High fatty acid levels in the blood due to mobilized fats being used as cellular fuel.
In Diabetes Mellitus (DM), __ accumulates in blood, resulting in ketoacidosis. ketones or ketone bodies
The 3 cardinal signs of diabetes mellitus are? Polyuria, polydipsia, & polyphagia
Severe ketoacidosis is life-threatening why? Disrupts heart activity & oxygen transport, & severe depression of NS = coma & death.
What is polyuria? Huge urine output - osmotic diuretic.
What is polydipsia? Excessive thirst due to dehydration.
What is polyphagia? Excessive hunger & food consumption.
Hyperinsulinism results in what? Low blood glucose levels - hypoglycemia - can cause disorientation & death - results from overdose of insulin - eat sugar.
Another name for "Type 1 diabetes" Mellitus IDDM - insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
What is destroyed in Type 1 DM? Beta cells by autoimmune response.
Type 1 DM is an example of __. Multi-gene autoimmune response - perhaps due to virus similar to beta cells.
Type 1 DM totally lack __. insulin activity
90% of DM cases are type __ DM. Type 2 - non-insulin dependent
Type 2 DM involves insulin __. resistance - insulin receptors are unable to respond.
Created by: Ladystorm