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I. Anat 21

Human Development and Genetics

The period from fertilization of egg until birth gestation
When ONE of millions of sperm joins the egg, combines DNA Fertilization
When egg and sperm combine Zygote
Fertilization of egg takes place in Fallopian tubes
A change or maturation of sperm that takes place as it is swimming thru uterus and fallopian tubes Capacitation
Becomes more fragile Acrosomes
Allows Acrosomes to burst and digest egg membrane
One sperm enters egg and the ____changes to block others membrane
Nuclei fuse restoring___ number Diploid
#chromosomes from mom # chromosomes from dad 23, 23
22 pars of ___(#1-22) Autosomes
1 pair of ___chromosomes Sex
XX female
XY male
Mitotic dividing of zygote occurs as it is sent toward uterus and continues till you die Cleavage
Morula has # cells 16
The pointy when mass becomes hollow blastocyte
Hollow space filled with fluid blastocele
Blastocele has 2 layers ___, ___ Trophoblast, inner mass
Outer layer of cells Trophoblast
Inner layer of cells inner mass
Bonding of zygote to uterine wall (5-8 days gestation) Implantation
Implantation stage 1 endometrium produces carbohydrates during the end of uterine cycle
Implantation stage 2 surface protein on the blastocyst combine with carbohydrates
Implantation stage 3 Trophoblast secretes enzyme that digest surface of endometrium
Implantation stage 4 blastocyst sinks in the crater
Embryonic membrane that forms the fetal portion of placenta Chorion
Chorion originates as Trophoblast
Embryonic stem cells Inner mass
Inner mass is where all ___can be expressed DNA
# kinds of cells at birth 200
Developing human from implantation to 8 weeks Embryo
12 days plate of cells within the blastocyte embryonic disk
Germ layers after ___ days___layers form that will derive specific tissues 14,3
Distinguished form embryo at 20 days Embryonic membrane
Gives rise to the first blood cells and sex stem cells Yolk sac
Yolk sac becomes part of ____ umbilical cord
Thin membrane that surrounds the embryo Amnion
What the Trophoblast is called as it develops Chorion
Projections from the Chorion into the endometrium that become fetal part of placenta chorionic villi
When does embryo form with head and limbs and beating heart 4-5weeks
When do organ systems establish 8weeks
Fetal growth ___-__ weeks 9-40
Maternal endometrium and fetal chorion tissue structures Placenta
Placenta forms at___weeks 12
___produces hormones that maintain pregnancy placenta
Produced by chorion of embryo hCG
What is hCG human chorionic gonadotropin
HCG is secreted in ____ Uterine
Placenta birthed after fetus afterbirth
Connects fetus to placenta umbilical cord
# arteries go away from fetus 2
# veins go toward fetus 1
Parturition birth
Sequence of events that occur during birth Labor
Labor has # stages 3
What stage does dilation and effacement occur 1
What stage does amniotic sac rupture 1
What stage is mucus plug released 1
What stage usually lasts 8-12 hours 1
What stage is delivery of infant 2
What stage is oxytocin released to increase uterine contraction 2
What stage is delivery of placenta 3
As soon as birth occurs what is the fetus called infant
___stimulates medulla which starts respiration Oxygen
Breathing promotes circulation which closes___ feramenal valley
__ may occur as liver immaturity does not excrete bilirubin Jaundice
Study of genes genetics
Most of our___ are determined by genetics characteristics
When a genes information is used form something such as making a protein expressed
The actual physical genetic make up genotype
Appearance of how the alleles are expressed phenotype
IE: the sequence of bases on the DNA genotype
IE: what the genotype determines Phenotype
2 or more possibilities for the expression of a pair of genes alleles
Both alleles are the same homozygous
The 2 alleles are different heterozygous
Dominant vs recessive only matters in ____alleles common
The gene that is expressed of the 2 dominant
The gene that is not expressed recessive
A diagram to illustrate how genes are expressed Punnett square
Gives all the possibilities of expression Punnett square
Sex linked traits aka x linked traits
Sex linked traits can be recessive but are always expressed in___ males ( because there is no dominant gene to suppress)
____factors also contribute to phenotype Environmental
Every gene has been mapped Human Genome Project
Diseases that are a result of malfunctioning DNA genetic disease
Created by: Sarsileigh



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