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I. Anat 20

Reproductive System

QuestionAnswer
Gametes ___male, ___female sperm, egg
One diploid cell contains ___chromosomes 46
One diploid cell divides # and end up with # haploid cells containing 23 chromosomes 2, 4
Sperm and egg join to become ___ zygote Zygote has # chromosome
Fertilized egg zygote
Consists of testes and a series of ducts and glands Male reproductive system
___is produced in the testes Sperm
Sperm is transported through the __ (4) epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra
Seminal vesicles, prostate and bulbourethral are all ____glands reproductive
Reproductive glands produce secretions mixing with sperm to become___ semen
Paired organs in scrotum Testes
Testes develop near___and descend before birth Kidneys
Undecided tests Cryptorchidism
Testes are divided into__ Lobes
Each lobe contains several ____ tubules seminiferous
Semeniferous tubules empty in to____testes Rete
Tubes that connect to epididymis Rete testes
___cells stimulated by testosterone to produce inhibin Sustentacular
Sustentacular cells aka Sertoli
Sustentacular cells located in ____tubules Semeniferous
___cells between loops of Semeniferous tubules interstitial
Interstitial cells stimulated by___to produce ___ LH, testosterone
20 foot long coiled tubes on posterior of each testis Epididymis… Epididymis connected to ____tubules by ___ testes
Maturation of sperm occurs in Epididymis
Smooth muscle moves sperm into ___ ____ ductus deferens
Ductus deferens aka vas deferens
Vas deferens is from epididymis to ____ duct ejaculatory
Opening from the inguinal are for the spermatic cord Inguinal canal
Inguinal canal is comon place for ____ hernia
Connective tissue sheath Spermatic cord
Spermatic cord contains blood vessels, nerves and _______ vas deferens
Paired organs posterior to bladder Seminal vesicles
Seminal vesicles secrete (2) Fructose, alkaline liquid
Energy source for sperm Fructose
Neutralizes acidy of vagina Alkaline liquid
Paired ducts that receive contents of seminal vesicles and vas deferens Ejaculatory duct
Ejaculatory ducts enter into ____ urethra Prostatic
Muscular gland inferior to bladder surrounding prostatic urethra Prostate
Prostate secretes ___liquid alkaline
Bulbourethral gland aka Cowper’s
Pea sized glands inferior to prostatic urethra Bulbourethral gland
Secretes alkaline liquid to neutralize acid from urine in urethra Bulbourethral gland
Penis contains__ urethra
The head of the penis Glans penis
Foreskin aka Prepuce
Surgical removal of foreskin Circumcision
There are # cavities cavernous erectile tissue 3
#corpus cavernosum 2
#corpus spongiosum 1
NO nitric oxide
NO causes dilation
Process of producing sperm Spermatogenesis
Spermatogenesis occurs in ____tubules Semeniferous
Temperature optimal for spermatogenesis 96 degrees
Seminiferous tubules contain stem calls called Spermatigoma
FSH Follicles stimulating hormone
FSH produced in anterior pituitary
FSH stimulates ___ production Sperm
LH Luteinizing hormone
LH produced in anterior pituitary
LH stimulates ___production in men Testosterone
Inhibin is from ___cells Sertoli
Inhibin is secreted from ___ testes
Inhibin inhibit____ FSH
Sperm contains ___chromosomes 23
Similar to lysozomes located on the head of sperm Acrosomes
Acrosomes digest the cell membrane of __ egg
Provide motility of sperm Flagellum
Flagellum is powered by ___ ATP
Sperm and secretion from seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral glands Semen
The pH of semen is slightly____ alkaline
Paired ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, external genitalia Female reproductive system
Paired oval shaped organs on each side of uterus Ovaries
Follicles have # stages 3
3 follicle stages Primary, graafin, atretic
Cavities that each contain an oocyte Primary follicles
Oocyte immature egg, ovum
Primary follicles are present from ___ birth
___-cells surround each oocyte Follicle
Follicle cells secrete estrogen
Follicle cells mature as a result of __and___ FSH, estrogen
Mature primary follicle Graafian follicle
Graafian follicle ruptures as result of LH
Graafian follicle becomes ____ and secrete progesterone, estrogen, inhibin, and relazin Corpus luteum
Developing follicles that become useless and deteriorate after ovulation of graafian follicles Atritic follicles
Attaches from medial end of ovary to uterus Ovarian ligament
Fold of peritoneum that covers the ovaries and attaches to the uterus Broad ligament
Process of egg cell formation Oogenesis
Oogenesis takes place in ___ Ovaries
FSH initiates growth of ___ egg
Each follicle contains___ Stem cells
___production stimulated by FSH estrogen
Estrogen promotes maturation of ___ ovum
Meiosis results in 3 polar bodies and one__ egg
Ova production begins at ___ puberty
Ova production continues till___ menopause
LH cause ___ Ovulation
4 in long tubes form the ovary to superior uterus Fallopian tubes
Fallopian tubes aka (2) uterine tubes, oviducts
Finger like projections superior to ovary Fimbrae
Fimbrae move to create current to catch ovum and pull into___ fallopian tubes
Fertilization usually takes place in___ fallopian tubes
Zygote secretes ____and implants on uterus Mucus
Implantation outside uterus Ectopic
Pear shaped muscular organ poterosuperior to bladder Uterus
Uterus contains ___-during pregnancy placenta
Superior part where fallopian tubes enter Fundus
Main central part body of uterus
Neck that opens into vagina Cervix
Outer layer (serosa) (a fold of visceral peritoneum) Epimetrium
Middle layer (smooth muscle) Myometrium
Myometrium hypertrophies during pregnancy to allow___ expansion
Myometrium ____ during labor Contracts
Inner most layer Endometrium
Endometrium has # layers 2
Endometrium 2 layers basilar, functional
Basilar layer adjacent to Myometrium
Basilar layer is _____ Permanent
Basilar layer is the area of ___ Mitosis
Innermost layer of endometrium Functional layer
Functional layer is ____and ___during menstruation regenerated, lost
Functional layer ____ and thickens from estrogen and progesterone in preparation for___ vascularizes, pregnancy
Function layer of endometrium froms____portion of placenta maternal
Muscular tube from cervix to vaginal orifice Vagina
Pelvic floor Perineum
Vagina is ___ to urethra Posterior
Vagina is ___ to rectum and anus Anterior
Vagina is partially covered by thin membrane till first intercourse Hymen
Vagina is made of stratified squamous epithelium why? Due to physical trauma, sex, birth, tampons
Normal flora of vagina produce____ pH to inhibit pathogens acidic
External genitalia aka Vuvla
Small mass of erectile tissue anterior to urethra Clitoris
Fat pad external to pubic symphasis covered by pubic hair Mons pubis
Lateral folds of skin Labia majora
Medial smaller folds of skin surrounding opening Labia minora
Prolactin increase milk___ production
Oxytocin causes mile___ release
Opening of vagina aka Vestibule
Vestibular glands aka Bartholins glands
Bartholins glands secrete_____ Lubrication
Menstrual cycle influenced by ___, ___, ___ and ___ FSH, LH, estrogen, progesterone
# phases to menstrual cycle 3
Phase marked by loss of functional layer of endometrium after menses Menstrual layer
Phase started by FSH and marked by growth of ovarian follicles, menstruation of ovum, regrowth of functional layer Follicular
Phase started by LH and marked by secretion of estrogen and progesterone, further growth of functional layer luteal
Created by: Sarsileigh