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I. Anat 16

Digestive System

Provides energy and nutrients Food
Food must be ___- into usable forms by digestive system Broken down
Continuous tube from mouth to anus Alimentary tube
Digestion occurs in the (3) Mouth, Stomach, Sm intestines
Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, GB and pancreas are all ____ organs Accessory
Accessory organs contribute to ___ Digestion
# types of digestion 2
Types of digestion (2) Mechanical, chemical
Physical breakdown into smaller pieces Mechanical digestion
Mechanical digestion ___ surface area for chemical digestion Increases
Breaking down complex molecules into simple molecules with enzymes Chemical digestion
Enzymes is specific to ___ Molecule (fat, carbohydrates, protein)
The mouth Oral cavity
Oral cavity aka Buccal cavity
Baby teeth aka Deciduous (milk teeth)
# baby teeth 20
Baby teeth begin to erupt at___ 6mo
Baby teeth are usually in by age __ 2
Permanent teeth replace ___ Deciduous teeth
#total permanent teeth 23
Types of permanent teeth (4) Incisors, K9, premolars, molars
# incisors 8
Flat chiseled like teeth Incisors
Sharp and pointy K9
# k9 4
Premolar aka Bicuspid
# premolar 8
Teeth with 2 points Premolars
# molars 23
Teeth with 4 points Molars
___ teeth are the last set Wisdom
Gums Gingiva
Part above the gingiva Crown
Very hard covering of the crown Enamel
___ made by meloblast cells Enamel
___prevents tooth from wearing out Enamel
___ is resistant to decay Enamel
Deep to the enamel Dentin
__is similar to bone Dentin
___produced by odontoblasts Dentin
Root is enclosed in the ___ Socket
Root is made of Dentin
Ligament that attaches to the root and bone Periodontal membrane / ligament
Inner most portion of the tooth Pulp cavity
Pulp cavity contains ___ Blood vessels
Pulp cavity contains ___ nerve Trigeminal
Tongue is __muscle Skeletal
Tongue functions (3) Taste, initiate swallowing, manipulate food
Projections on superior surface of tongue Papillae
Papillae contains__ Taste buds
Papillae __ food to manipulate it Grip
Produce saliva Salivary glands
# pairs of salivary glands 3
Salivary gland anteroinferior to ear Parotic
Medial to the angle of the mandible Submandibular
Submandibular aka Submaxiallry
Inferior to tongue, medial to the body of the mandible Sublingual
Made of water and amylase Saliva
Saliva is made of (2) Water and amylase
Moistens food Saliva
Breaks down carbohydrates Saliva
Amount of saliva produced is based on ___ Need
Saliva is produced from blood plasma by __ Filtration
# structural layers to alimentary tube 4
The inside lining of the alimentary tube Digestive mucosa
Digestive mucosa made of ____ tissue Epithelial
Esophagus is is ____ ____ Stratified squamous (sloughs off due to friction)
Stomach and intestines are ____ ___ Simple columnar (for absorption)
Epithelial tissue ____ for lubrication Secretes mucous
Epithelial tissue ___ (stomach and sm intestines only) Digestive enzymes
Deep in mucosa Submucosa
Submucosa is made of ___ connective tissue Areolar
Just deep to the epithelium in the areolar connective tissue Submucosa
Lymph nodes fight infection that get through the ___ Epithelium
Submucosa is highly ___, highly___ Vascular, nervous
Submucosa contains ___ tissue Lymphatic
Entire length of gut Enteric nervous system
Nerve networks that innervate mucosa to regulate secretion Meisner’s / submucosal plexus
Meisner’s / submucosal plexus, nerve network that innervate mucosa to regulate ___ Secretion
Parasympathetic __ secretion Increase
Sympathetic ___ secretion Decrease
External muscle layer # layers of __ muscle 2, smooth
Circular layer Inner
Longitudinal laye Outter
Muscle layers create ___ Peristalsis
Moving food in one direction Peristalsis
External muscle layers innervated by ___ Auerbach’s / myenteric
Parasympathetic__ peristalsis Increase
Sympathetic __ peristalsis Decrease
Serous membrane connective tissue later that supports the GI tract Serosa
Serosa secretes ___, why? Serous Fluid, decrease friction
Below the diaphragm the serosa is called___ when covering organs Mesentery (visceral peritoneum)
Below the diaphragm the serosa is called ___ when lining abdominal cavity Peritoneum (parietal peritoneum)
LUQ inferior to diaphragm and anterior to spleen Stomach
Between esophagus and sm intestines (duodenum) Stomach
Stomach is separated from the esophagus by Lower esophageal sphincter
LES Lower esophageal sphincter
Stomach hold food it ___ and ___ digests Mechanically, chemically
Opening from esophagus to stomach Cardiac orifice
Part superior to cardiac orifice Fundus
Fundus usually contains ___ Air
Main part of stomach Body
Curve superior/medial, short and border Lessor curvature
Curve inferior/lateral, long border Greater curvature
Area adjacent to duodenum Pylorus
Pylorus and duodenum are separated by Pyloric sphincter
Pyloris sphincter relaxes in ___to release food into ___ Intervals, duodenum
Pylorus contracts again to prevent-__ backflow
Wrinkles/folds that appear then stomach is empty Rugae
Glands that consist of several cell types Gastric pits
___cells secrete mucous Goblet
Cells that secrete pepsinogen Chief
Chief cells break down ___bonds Peptide
___cells secrete hydrogen ion or proton and intrinsic factor Parietal
Secrete h+ into stomach that bond to Cl- that diffuse from parietal cells Proton pumps
Intrinsic factor is necessary form ___ absorption B12
__cells secrete the hormone gastrin G
G cells secrete ___ Gastrin
Stomach pH is ___ 1-2
Acidic pH does what Kills pathogens and microorganisms
Acidic pH is necessary for __ to function Pepsin
All of the secretions of the stomach Gastric juice
Gastric juice is secreted in small amounts at the ____ Thought of eating
Gastric juice is controlled by ____ nervous syste, Parasympathetic
Food increases ___secretion gastrin
Stomach has # muscle layers 3
The three muscle layers of stomach longitudinal, oblique, circular
Longitudinal stomach, muscle runs___ verticle
Circular stomach muscle runs___ horizontal
Oblique stomach muscle runs at an ___ angle
The three muscle layers of the stomach are responsible for chrurning food
Stomach muscle layers are inervated by Auerbach's(myenteric)plexus
Small imtestines stretch from ___to___ stomach, colon
Smakk intestines are# inch in diameter 1
Small intestine is #feet long 20
Small intestine has # parts 3
Three parts of sm intestine duodenum,jejunum, ileum
First part of small intestines duodenum
Common bile duct empties into the Ampulla of Vater
Jejunum is # feet long 8
Ileum is# Feet long 11
Digestion ends in___ small intestine
Nutrients from small intestines is absorbed into ____and____ blood, lymph
Small intestines are made of simple____cells with___ columnar,microvilli
____cells secrete mucus goblet
____cells secrete hormone of small intestines enteroendocrine
Lymoh nodules in small intestinrs for immunity Peyer's patches
Muscle layer of small intestines is made of ____muscle smooth
Smooth muscle of small intestines runs ___ans___ circulsr,longitudinal
Small intestines controlled by ____nerve vagus
Peristalsis can occur without ____control via the ___nervous system CNS, enteric
Three sources of gsdtric secretion liver, gallbladder,pancreas
RUQ directly inferior to diphrahm liver
Liver has 2 lobes called right and left
Liver lobule aka hepatic lobule
Functional unit of the liver liver lobule
Liver lobule is a ___ column of____ hexoganal,hepatocytes
Liver lobule is surrounded by branches of ____artery and ____vein hepatic, portal
Larger cavities between rows of hepstocytes sinusoid
Liver has no_____ capillaries
liver is very _____ permiable
Liver receives blood from (2) hepatic artry, portal vein
Arterial and venous blood ____(not blood to AND from) mixes
____vein is central to lobules central
Central vein unites with other central veins from the hepatic vein and drain into___ IVC
Liver secretes ___ bile
Hepatocytes secrete into ____ which empty into the bile duct bike caniculi
Bile ducts empty into____ hepatic duct
Bile is mostly made of___ water
Two purposes of bile excretion,secretion
Byproduct of RBC (hem) breakdowm bilirubin
Bile excretes excess___ cholesterol
Bile secretes for ____ digestion
Hormone secreted in duodenum secretin
Secret in is produced in the duodenum
Secret in helps stimulate_____production bile
Bile salts emulsify Lipids
Carbohydrate metabolism regulates ___in the blood glucose
Excess glucose stimulates Glycygenesis
Glucose is converted into the polusaccharide__ Glycogen
Carbohydrate metabolism is stimulated by ___and___ Insulin, cortisol
Gucagon and epinephrine cause __ Glycogenolysis
Conversion of glycogen back to glucose when blood sugar is ___ Low
AA metabolism; the liver can produce 12-#AA (non essential 20
Catabolizes AAs when there is excess to make glycogen or __ Fat
Lipoproteins allow ___in the blood Transport
Lipid metabolism synthesizes ___ Cholesterol
Liver syntheszises plasma protein such as ___ and globulins Albumin
Liver phagocystizes pathogens with resident WBS called____cells Kupffer
Liver stores ___soluble vitamis (A,D,K,E) Fat
Liver stores iron and ___ Copper
The livers main purpose is ___ Detoxification
When enzymes transform harmful substances Dextoxification
Liver stores___(entrinsic factor) B12
Created by: Sarsileigh



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