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I. Anat 15

Respiratory System

System of breathing includes accessory structures Respiratory system
Air passage from the nose to upper trachea Upper Divison (found in the chest cavity)
Lower division of respiratory system is found outside the ___ Chest cavity
Nostrils aka Nares
Keeps the nasal passage open Cartilage
Hair in nasal cavity is called Vabrisae
Vabrisae does what Traps particles in nasal cavity
# nasal cavities 2
Bone and soft tissue that separates the cavities Nasal septum
Vomer and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone make up the ____ Nasal septum
Epithelium in nasal cavity Nasal mucosa
Some nasal mucosa is ___ Ciliated
___cells produce mucosa Goblet
3 curly bones on each lateral wall Conchae
Conchae bones are classified as __, ___, and ___ Superior, inferior, middle
Conchae ____air Conditions
Turbulence warms and humidifies air and traps particles in mucus Condition air
Chemo receptor from the cranial nerve 1 that come through the cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Olfactory receptors
Air filled cavities in the frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, sphenoid bones (mastoid sinuses) Paranasal sinus
Paranasal sinus has ____epithelium Ciliated
Function of paranasal sinus Lighten skull, resonance
Muscular tune posterior to the nasal and oral cavities Pharynx
Pharynx has # parts 3
Parts of pharynx Laryngopharynx, oropharynx, nasopharynx
__pharynx most superior Naso
__pharynx posterior to the nasal cavity Naso
Soft tissue continuation of hard palate Soft palate
Separates oro and nasopharynx Soft palate
Elevated during swallowing to prevent bolus form entering nasopharynx Soft palate
Pharyngeal tonsils aka Adenoids
Lymphatic organ for immunity (3) Palatine, Lingual, and Pharyngeal tonsils
Opening from the middle ear Eustachian tubes
Eustachian tubes permit ____of air pressure Equalization
__pharynx behind the oral cavity Oro
__pharynx is the passage for air and food Oro
Oropharynx has __ ___ epithelium Stratified squamous
“Tonsils” aka Palatine tonsils
Lymphatic organ for immunity right behind the tongue Lingual tonsils
__pharynx is inferior Laryngo
__pharynx opens anteriorly to larynx and inferior to esophagus Laryngo
__pharynx + contraction with oropharynx initiate ___ Laryngo, swallowing
Larynx aka Voice box
Sound generation and air passage (speaking, breathing) Larynx
Larynx is kept open with ___ Cartilage
Adams apple is made of ____ cartilage Thyroid
Cartilage that lowers to close passage to larynx during swallowing Epiglottis
Sweeps debris upward to oropharynx (except vocal cords) Ciliated epithelium
Vibrate to make sound waves Vocal cords
Vocal cords aka Vocal folds
Opening between vocal cords Glottis
“Wind pipe” Trachea
Trachea is #-# inches 4, 5
Goes from larynx to primary bronchi Trachea
Trachea has 16-20 __ shaped rings C
C rings gap ___ to permit ___ Posteriorly, swallowing
Trachea has ___ epithelium (with goblet cells) Ciliated
Paired, first division of the trachea that enters the right and left lunch Primary bronchi
Primary bronchi also has ___ rings (unknown why) C
Primary bronchi has ___ epithelium (with goblet cells) Ciliated
___ ____ end at each lung Primary bronchi
Further branches of primary bronchi Secondary bronchi
Secondary has # lobes on right 3
Secondary has # lobes on left 2
Why are the number of lobes in the lung different The heart take up more space on the left side, thus only room for 2 lobes
Bronchi become smaller and smaller until they become Bronchioles
Bronchioles have no__ Cartilage
Bronchioles are made of ____ _____ muscle Circular smooth
Bronchioles are made of circular smooth muscle cause the ___________ Contract and get smaller
Bronchioles terminate at the ___ Alveoli
Lateral to the heart Lungs
Lungs rest on the ___ Diaphragm
___ of the lungs is level with clavicle Apex
Indentation on medial surface when primary bronchi, vessels and nerves enter and exit the lungs Hilus
Pleural membranes are ___membranes Serous
Lines thoracic cavity Parietal membrane
Covers the lungs Visceral membrane
Secretion of pleural fluid does what Reduces friction
Millions of air sacs where bronchioles terminate and where gas exchange occurs Alveoli
___have surface area of 700-800sq ft Alveoli
Alveoli have # cell types 2
Alveoli cell types are Type I and Type II
Alveolar type ___ cells form the majority of alveolar wall 1
Generally a single layer of squamous epithelium Type 1
Alveolar type ___ cells produce pulmonary surfactant 2
Fluid produced to prevent walls of alveoli from sticking together by decreasing surface tension Surfactant
__ connective tissue connect alveoli Elastic
___ are within alveoli Macrophages Alveoli are surrounded with ____
Movement of air to and from alveoli Ventilation
Inhalation aka Inspire
Breathing in Inhalations / Inspiration
Exhalation aka Expire
Breathing out Exhalation / Expiration
Rhythmicity of breathing controlled by ___ and ___ Medulla, pons
Impulse carried by ___ nerve (supplies diaphragm) Phrenic
Diaphragm, internal and external intercostal muscles Primary muscles
Accessory aka Secondary
Assist other muscles Secondary muscles
___ and __ -nerves are in control on inhalations Phrenic, intercostal
Inhalation: diaphragm ___ and____ pulling the chest cavity open Contracts and flattens
External intercostal muscles pull the ribs ___ and ___ Up, out
Since there is no air in the ___ space, the lungs are opened up with the chest which pulls the air Pleural
During exhalation the muscles of inhalation____ Relax
Exhalation requires no ___ Energy
___ exhalation (singing, sneezing, coughing) the internal intercostals pull ribs down and in Forced
Capacities of the lungs to hold air Pulmonary volumes
Pulmonary volume is measure with a ___ Spirometer
Volume of air involved in one breath (inhale-exhale) Tidal volume (avg 500mL)
MRV Minute Respiratory Volume
Volume breathed in one minute MRV
MRV formulation Tidal volume X bpm (breath not beats)
Volume you COULD inhale beyond normal tidal volume Inspiratory reserve
Volume you COULD exhale beyond normal tidal volume Expiratory reserve
Sum of volume of tidal volume, expiratory reserve, and inspiratory reserve (volume with forces expiration and inspiration) Vital capacity
Volume left in lungs after maximum exhalation Residual volume / air
Amount of air that actually reaches the alveoli Alveolar ventilation (350-400mL)
Air NOT in alveoli with inhalation Anatomic dead space
Volume in non-functioning alveoli Physiologic dead space
Physiologic dead space is not ___ Normal
Bronchitis, pneumonia, TB, emphysema, asthma, COPD are examples of Physiologic dead space
Normal extensibility (elasticity) of the lungs and thoracic wall that allow breathing Compliance
___is decreased with fractures, scoliosis, ascites, pleurisy, ankylosing spondylitis Compliance
Our bodies make energy by Cellular (internal) respiration
Expulsion of CO2 using the lungs is called External respiration
O2 and CO2 pass back and forth across capillary and alveolus walls by Diffusion
98.5% of O2 is carried on a pigment called____ Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is on our ___ and an ___ binding site RBC, iron
# ways to regulate respiration 2
Ways to regulate respiration (2) Nervous, chemical
Nervous regulation is located in ___ and ___ Medulla, pons
Involuntarily generates impulses in rhythmic spurts Inspiration center
Baroreceptors in lung tissue cause a negative feedback to prevent over inflations Herin-Bruer inhalation reflex
Activates active expiration when necessary Expiration center
Chemoreceptors detect pH, O2, CO2 Chemical regulation
Decrease O2 Hypoxia
Increased CO2 Hypercapnea
___ and ___ bodies detect O2 and CO2 Carotid, aortic
___detects pH Medulla
Increases H+ resulting in decreases pH Respiratory acidosis
Poor respiration Dyspnea
Decrease H+ resulting in increased pH Respiratory alkalosis
pH imbalance caused by something other than respiration Metabolic acidosis / alkalosis
Created by: Sarsileigh



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