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I. Anat 10

Endocrine System

System that secretes hormones Endocrine
Endocrine glands secrete directly into the blood stream or interstitial space
Endocrine glands to not have__ Ducts
Chemicals that bring about change in the body Hormones
Hormones have specific affects on certain areas called Target organs
Variations of the AA thyrosine Amines
A subgroup of amines Catecholamines
Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine are all Catecholamines
Long chains of AA Proteins
Group including insulin, GH, and calcitonin Proteins Protein just with shorter chains
Group including ADH and oxytocin Peptide
Cholesterol derivatives Steroids
Cortisol, estrogen, progesterone and testosterone are all Steroids
Cells of the endocrine system respond to ___changes, ____or ___stimulation Chemical, hormones, NS
When a hormone brings abut its affect, the hormone is inhibited Negative feedback
Released in order to cause other hormones to be released Releasing hormones
Some hormones have an ____ that affects tissue in an ___ way Antagonistic pair, opposite
Hypophysis aka Pituitary gland
Pituitary hangs by short stalk called Infundibulum
Pituitary enclosed in Sella turcica
Pea sized gland Pituitary
# of parts of pituitary 2
Parts of pituitary Anterior, posterior
Neurophysis aka Posterior pituitary
Extends from the nerve tissue of the hypothalamus Posterior pituitary
2 hormones produced from posterior pituitary Antidiuretic and oxytocin
ADH Antidiuretic hormone
Antidiuretic hormone aka Vasopressin
Helps maintain BP ADH
ADH is ___hormone Peptide
ADH ___ urine formation decreases
Release of ADH is stimulated by ____ in water concentration Low
Water concentration is monitored by____ Osmoreceptors
During major blood loss ADH is released in large amounts causing Vasoconstriction
Alcohol intake ___ ADH secretion Decreases
Oxytocin is a ___ hormone Peptide
Oxytocin stimulates______as cervix stretches, triggers hypothalamus which releases more oxytocin Uterine contraction
Released from the ____ in addition to the pituitary toward the end of pregnancy Placenta
Infant sucking stimulated the hypothalamus which triggers___ form the pituitary triggering milk___ Oxytocin, release
Adenohypophysis aka Anterior pituitary
Anterior pituitary is made of ___ tissue Glandular
Glandular tissue has no___ Nerve tract
Anterior pituitary regulated by releasing hormones from the ___ Hypothalamus
Anterior pituitary releasing hormone released through the hypophysial portal system
Somatotroipin aka Growth hormone GH
Anterior pituitary stimulates cells to produce ____that bring about the functions of GH IGF IGF
GH increase the transport of __ AA
GH increases the rate of____ Protein synthesis
GH stimulates__ (repair and growth) Mitosis
GH aids in converting ____ to carbohydrates for energy Lipids
__ is active in all ages GH
GH is regulated by 2 releasing hormones from the hypothalamus GHRH and GHIH
GHRH Growth hormone releasing hormone
GHIH Growth hormone inhibiting hormone
GHIH aka Somatostatin
GHRH ____ the secretion of GH Increase
GHIH____ the secretion of GH Decrease
GHRH produced during____ Hypoglycemia and exercise
GHIG produced during___ Hyperglycemia
____levels of AA in the blood also stimulated the secretion of GH
TSH Thyroid stimulating hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormone aka Thyrotropin
TSH stimulates the release of __ Thyroxine
TRH Thyrotropin releasing hormone
TRH produced when metabolic rate ___ Slows
ACTH Adrenocorticotropic hormone
ACTH stimulates the release of hormones from the ___ Adrenal cortex
CRH Corticoptropin releasing hormone
ACTH secretion is increased by____ Corticotropin releasing hormone
CRH is produced during physical stress
Initiates and maintains milk production Prolactin
PRH Prolactin releasing hormone
PIH Prolactin inhibiting hormone
PRH___secretion Increase
PIH____secretions Decrease
FSH Follicle stimulating hormone
FSH stimulates the growth of the ____ (in women) Ovarian follicle
FSH stimulates the growth of ____production (in men) Sperm
GnRh Gonadotropin releasing hormone
GnRh ____production of FSH Increases
Inhibin form ovaries or testes___secretion decreases
LH Luteinizing hormone
LH stimulates the follicle to ovulate and develop into the ____ (in women) Corpus Luteum
LH stimulates ____ cells to secrete testosterone in men (where it gets the name ICSH) Interstitial
ICSH Interstitial cell stimulating hormone
GnRh ____the secretion of LH increases
Located anterior and bilateral to the trachea just inferior to the larynx Thyroid
Thyroid gland has # lobes 2
Thyroid glad lobes are connected by Isthmus
Structural unit of the thyroid gland Thyroid follicles T3 contains # iodine molecules
T4 contains # iodine molecules 4
Enlarged thyroid Goiter
Increases energy production and protein synthesis Thyroid gland
Thyroid release is stimulated by TSH form the ______ Anterior pituitary
Maintains normal blood levels of calcium ad phosphate by decreasing Reabsorption of calcium and phosphate Calcitonin
Maintains normal blood levels of calcium ad phosphate by decreasing Reabsorption of calcium and phosphate____blood levels Increasing
Calcitonin is stimulated by___ Hypercalcemia
2 glands on the posterior of each lobe of the thyroid gland Parathyroid
PTH Parathyroid gland
Antagonist to calcitonin PTH
Antagonist to calcitonin thus___blood calcium and phosphate level Increasing
Targets bones, small intestines and kidneys PTH
PTH _____ demineralization and absorption from food Increases
PTH stimulated by ____ Hypercalcemia
Located in LUQ Pancreas
This is classified as endocrine AND exocrine Pancreas
Function al units are islets of Langerhans /pancreatic islets that are made of two cells Pancreas
Function al units are islets of Langerhans/pancreatic islets that are made of two cells called Alpha and beta
___cells produce insulin Beta
___cells produce glucogon Alpha
Stimulates liver to begin ___ and use lipids and AA for energy Glycogenesis
Stimulating the liver to begin Glycogenesis and use lipids and AA for energy is called Glucogenesis
Sugar production Glucogenesis
Glucogon is stimulated by___ Hypoglycemia
Glucogon rhyme When glucose is gone, glucogon
Decreases blood sugar Insulin
Insulin decreases blood sugar by increasing permeability of cells to glucose and stimulating___ in the liver and muscles Glycogenesis
Insulin is stimulated by___ Hyperglycemia
The _____ (3) do not need insulin to absorb glucose Brain liver and kidneys
Adrenal glands aka Suprarenal
Located at the top of each kidney Adrenal glands
Adrenal glands are divided into # parts 2
Adrenal gland parts are Medulla and cortex
Sympathetic nervous system Fight or flight
Mimic the effect of the SNS Sympathomimetic
Stimulated by the SNS Adrenal medulla
Adrenal medulla secretes ____ and____ epinephrine, norepinephrine Epinephrine aka
Norepinephrine aka Noradrenaline
Subclass of amines Catecholamines
Released in small amounts Norepinephrine
Causes vasoconstriction in skin, viscera, and skeletal m Norephinephrine
Secreted in large amounts Epinephrine
Increases heart rate and force of contractions Epinephrine
Vasoconstriction in skin and viscera Epinephrine
Vasodilatation in skeletal muscle Epinephrine
Epinephrine causes vaso____ in skeletal muscle Constriction
Epinephrine ____ bronchioles Dilates
Epinephrine ____ peristalsis Decreases
Epinephrine ____ glycogenolysis (energy) Increases
Epinephrine ____ Glucogenesis from lipids Increases
Epinephrine ____ cell respiration (into ATP) Increases
Stronger that the SNS Epinephrine
Secretes 3 types of steroid hormones Adrenal cortex
3 types of steroid hormones Mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, sex hormones
Sex hormones (2) Estrogens, Androgens
___hormones are produced in small amounts Sex
Does the same as ADH Aldosterone
The most abundant mineralcorticoid Aldosterone
Aldosterone primary target is the ___ Kidneys
Aldosterone ____ Reabsorption of Na+ Increases
Aldosterone ___blood volume and BP Increases
Aldosterone ____excretion of K+ Increases
Kidneys secrete ___ when BP decrease Renin
Renin causes plasma protein ____ to be made Angiotensin II
Angiotensin II causes____ and causes the adrenal cortex to release Aldosterone Vasoconstriction
What do lysozymes do Destroy
___ is a glugocorticoid Cortisol
Increases glucogenesis from lipids and excess AA Glucose sparing
Conserve3s glucose for use by the brain Cortisol
___ cells cannot convert other molecules n to glucose like other tissue types Brain
___ensures that available glucose gets used by the brain Cortisol
Blocks histamines Anti-inflammatory
Histamine increases capillary____ and allows lysozymes to spread Permeability
Corticosteroids are modeled after____ Cortisol
Cortisol is released during times of ____ or ____stress Physical, psychological
ACTH from ____pituitary Anterior
Estrogen is a ___ Steroid
Secretes from the follicle cells and placenta during pregnancy Estrogen
Is increased by FSH Estrogen
Promotes maturation of the ovum and endometrium Estrogen
Promotes secondary sex characteristics in women Estrogen
Aids in growth of duct system in mammary glands Estrogen Aid in growth of uterus
Aids in deposition of ___ tissue in hips and thighs Fat
Aids in closure of growth plates in long bones Estrogen
Lowers blood cholesterol and triglycerides Estrogen
In med ___ is converted into estrogen Testosterone
Progesterone is a ___ Steroid
Secreted from the corpus luteum and placenta during pregnancy Progesterone
Promotes glycogensis Progesterone
Promotes maturation of endothelium Progesterone
Promotes development of secretory cells of memory glands Progesterone
Inhibin is a ___ Protein
Decreases FSH and GnRh Inhibin
Testosterone is a __ Steroid
Secreted by interstitial cells Testosterone
Stimulated by LH Testosterone
Promotes sperm maturation Testosterone
Promotes secondary sex characteristics in males Testosterone
Aids in growth of facial hair Testosterone
Aids in enlargement of larynx Testosterone
Aids in hypertrophy of skeletal muscle Testosterone
Aids in closure of the growth plate in long bones Testosterone
Secreted by sustentacular cells Inhibin
Stimulated by testosterone Inhibin
Decreases FSH Inhibin
Hormone that helps you sleep and increases duration Melatonin
Produced in pineal gland Melatonin
Hormone increased during darkness Melatonin
PG Prostaglandins
Made in virtually all cells from phospholipids of their cell membranes Prostaglandins
Hormone that is local and does not circulate in the blood Prostaglandins
Hormones bond to ___ on target cells Receptors
Only___ cells have the receptors Target
Receptors are in the ___, ____, and____ Cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
Protein hormones are the ___ mechanism Messenger
Messengers stimulate a ___ Response
First messenger-protein hormones bond to ____ receptors on the ___ Surface, membrane
cAMP Cyclic adenosinemonophosphate
CAMP is the ___ messenger Second
Causes specific response specific to that cell based on enzymes within the cell cAMP
Steroids are ___soluble Lipid
Steroids___ through cell membrane Defuse
Steroids combine with receptors in the ___ Cytoplasm
The steroid protein complex enters the___ Nucleus
Steroids activate specific ____to initiate___ and then___ Genes, transcription, translation
Created by: Sarsileigh



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