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I. Anat 9

The Senses

Provide us with information about our surrounding the senses
Sensory pathways # parts 4
Detect stimuli and generate impulses Receptors
Types of stimuli Pressure, temperature, pain, light
Functionally related bundles of fibers in the white matter of the spinal cord or brain Sensory tracts
Usually in the cerebral cortex Sensory areas
Perception of sensation in any given area Projection
Perception of a pain in an area that doesn’t exist Phantom pain
Number of receptors stimulated and the amount of stimulation in each Intensity
Effect of a precious or simultaneous sensation on a current sensation Contrast
Becoming less aware if continuous impulses with continued stimulation Adaptation
Sensation remains in the consciousness after the stimulus has stopped after image
Cutaneous senses Skin
___ nerve endings detect heat, cold, pain Free
___ nerve endings detect touch and pressure Encapsulated
Sensory areas in the skin are in the ___lobe Parietal
Sensitivity is determined by the ___ Number of receptors present
Pain from a visceral organ felt in a cutaneous area Referred pain
Detect stretching Stretch receptors
General (conscious) sensation is felt in ___ lobe Parietal
Subconscious muscle sense detected in ___ lobe Cerebellum
Taste receptors Taste buds
Detect chemicals in food dissolved in saliva Chemoreceptors
Chemoreceptors are found in papillae on the tongue
Taste is enhanced by___ Smell
Taste impulses are transmitted by ____ and ___ nerves Facial, glossopharyngeal
Olfactory receptors are ____ receptors Chemo
Detect vaporized chemicals in the upper nasal cavity Olfactory receptors
Hunger and thirst: visceral sensation triggered by___ Internal changes
For hunger, detects ___ Blood nutrient levels, hormones including glucose
For thirst, detects___ Water concentration
Hunger sensation ___ if we don’t eat when adipose tissue is used for nutrients Decreases
Thirst will __ is not satisfied worsen
Eyelids and lacrimal apparatus are__ structures Accessory
Eyelids are controlled by ___ muscle Skeletal
Protection, lubrication, cleaning Eyelids
Prevent dust eyelids
Thin membrane that lines the eyelid and covers sclera Conjunctiva
Produce tears Lacrimal glands
Superior and lateral to the eye within the orbit (cavity) Lacrimal gland
Lacrimal ducts release tears and blinking___ Spreads them
Tears are ___% NaCl 1
Tears contain Lysozymes
Lysozymes Clean up damage, phagocytize bacteria
Punta lacrimalia serves what purpose Exiting
# chambers in the eyeball 2
Chambers of the eyeball (2) Anterior and Posterior
Vitreous chamber aka Posterior chamber
Chamber between the lens and retina Posterior chamber
Posterior chamber location between lens and retina
Posterior chamber contains Vitreous humor
Vitreous humor found it Posterior chamber
Semisolid substance Vitreous humor
Chamber between lens and cornea Anterior
Anterior chamber location between lens and cornea
Vitreous humor keeps___ in place Retina
Anterior chamber contains Aqueous humor
Aqueous humor is located Anterior chamber
Aqueous humor is formed from ___ in the ciliary body Capillaries
Aqueous humor is formed form capillaries in the ___ Ciliary body
Aqueous humor is reabsorbed by ___ Canal of Schlemm
Canal of Schlemm location Anterior to iris
Aqueous humor nourishes ___ and ___ Lens, cornea
Wall of eye has # parts 3
Wall of eye parts 3 Outer, inner, middle
Outer wall of eye Sclera, cornea
Middle wall of eye Choroids, iris, ciliary body
Inner wall of eye Retina
Thickest fibrous connective tissue Sclera
White part Sclera
Transparent portion Cornea
Has no capillaries Cornea
First part of the pathway of light as it is refracted into the eye Cornea
Choroid layer includes (2) Ciliary body and iris
Contains blood vessels Choroid layer
Circular muscle that surrounds and is connected to the lens Ciliary body
Ciliary body connected by Suspensory ligaments
Ciliary changes____ so we can focus Shape of lens
Colored part of the eye Iris
Anterior to the lens Iris
Has circular and radial muscle fibers Iris
Opening in the iris Pupil
Contraction of the radial fibers Dilation
Contraction of the circular fibers Constriction
Lets more light in, darkness Dilation
Blocks light when bright Constriction
Posterior 2/3 of eye Retina
Contains___ receptors Visual
Visual receptors (2) Rods and cones
Detect ALL wavelengths of visible light Rods
Most abundant in the periphery of the eye Rods
Detect colors Cones
Detect different wavelengths of visible light Cones
Abundant in the center of the retina Cones
Small depression in the macula that contains only cones and is the area for best color vision Fovea centralis
Opening where the optic nerve exit’s the eye Optic disk
Blind spot Optic disk
Psychology of vision Light is focused on the retina receptors generate impulse  visual areas of the brain interpret
Bending of light rays as they pass through the eye Refraction
Adjustable part of the refractory system Lens
Focuses image on __ Retina
At rest ___ pull the lens tight Suspensory ligaments
Pulling the lens tight____ the lens Flattens
When focusing on near objects the ____ contracts Ciliary muscle
When the ciliary muscle contracts makes the lens___ A small circle
Becomes less elastic with age Presbyopia
Chemical rhodopsin Rods
Chemical reaction that breaks down into retinal and other proteins Cones
Requires specific wavelengths Cones
2 eyes Binocular vision
Allows for depth perception Binocular vision
Binocular vision requires eyes___ to eliminate double vision Converge
The ear has # areas 3
3 areas of the ear Outer, inner and middle
Ear contains receptors for ___ and ___ Hearing, equilibrium
Receptors for hearing and equilibrium are found in ____ear Inner
Auricle and ear canal Outer ear
Cartilage covered with skin Auricle
External auditory meatus aka Ear canal
Lined with ceruminous and sebaceous glands Ear canal
Air filled cavity that contains the ossicles and is drained by eustachian tubes Middle ear
Tympanic membrane aka Ear drum
Separates the middle and outer ear Ear drum
Ossicles (3) Malleus, incus, stapes
Transfer and amplify sound to oval window of inner ear Ossicles
Auditory tubes aka Eustachian tubes
Eustachian tubes extend from___ to ___ Middle ear to nasopharynx
Permits air to enter or leave Eustachian tubes
Can plug and cause pressure when change in elevation occurs Eustachian tubes
Middle ear infection aka Otitis media
Cavity called bony labyrinth in the temporal bones Inner ear
Inner ear contains (2) Cochlea, vestibule
For equilibrium Vestibule
For hearing Cochlea
Inner ear lined with Membranous labyrinth
Fluid between bone and membranous labyrinth Perilymph
Fluid within the membranous labyrinth Endolymph
Snail shell shaped structure Cochlea
Contains the organ of Corti Cochlear duct
Receptors in cochlear duct Hair cells
Hair cells have special Microvili Specialized microvili called
Hearing sound waves ear canaltempanic membrane malleus incusstapesoval windowperilymph and endolymph in cochleahair cells to the organ of Corti cranial nerve 8 temporal lobe
Membrane covered window just below oval window Round window
Bulges out to relieve pressure when the oval window is depressed Round window
Vestibular apparatus aka Vestibule
Impulses carried by___ portion of acoustic nerve to the cerebellum, midbrain, and temporal lobes Vestibular
Parts of the brain in charge of equilibrium Cerebellum and midbrain
Conscious awareness Temporal lobes
Membranous sacs in the vestibule (2) Utricle and saccule
Equilibrium at rest Static equilibrium
Hair cells detect movement of___ Otoliths
3 fluid filled membranous ovals oriented in different planes Semicircular canals
Equilibrium while moving Dynamic equilibrium
Base of each semicircular canal Ampulla
Hair cells detect movement of ___ in the canal by bending Endolymph
Detect change in blood Arterial receptors
Arterial receptors are located (2) Aorta and carotid arteries
Baroreceptors aka Pressoreceptors
Detect BP Pressoreceptors
Detect Co2, O2 and pH Chemoreceptors
Created by: Sarsileigh



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