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I. Anat 8

Nervous system

QuestionAnswer
Functions of the Nervous System To detect changes and feel sensation
Functions of the Nervous System Initiate appropriate response to changes
Functions of the Nervous System To organize information for immediate use and store for future reference
Nervous system activities (2) Conscious and subconscious
Anatomical divisions Central and Peripheral
CNS Central Nervous System
PNS Peripheral Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord CNS
12 Cranial nerves and 31 Spinal nerves PNS
Nerve cell Neuron
Processes of a neuron Nerve fibers
Toward cell body Dendrites
Away from cell body Axon
Neuron fiber covering Myelin sheath
Space between Schwann cells Neurofibral nodes
Sheath of Schwann cells Neurolemma
Neuroglial cells (4) Oligodendrocytes, Microglia, Epindymal, Astrocytes
Produces myelin in the CNS Oligodendrocytes
Move and phagocytize pathogens and damaged tissue Microglia
Line the ventricles to help CSF circulate Epindymal
Help maintain potassium levels Astrocytes
Wrap around capillaries to contribute to the blood brain barrier Astrocytes
Prevents harmful substances from entering the brain Blood Brain Barrier
CFS Cerebrospinal fluid
BBB Blood brain barrier
K+ Potassium
Na- sodium
Space between the axon of one neuron and dendrites of cell body of another Synapse
Presynaptic axon Synaptic knob Release neurotransmitter signals by electrical depolarization
Chemicals that excite or inhibit a neuron in a synapse Neurotransmitter
Causes postsynaptic neuron to depolarize Excitatory
Causes postsynaptic neuron to hyperpolarize Inhibitory
Enzyme that inactivates neurotransmitter to stop the impulse until needed again In activator
Reabsorption of neurotransmitter back into neuron that released it Reuptake
Types of neurons Sensory, Motor, Interneuron
Sensory aka Afferent
Motor aka Efferent
Impulses to CNS Sensory
Impulse from CNS to effector Motor
Produce impulses Receptors
Receptors in skin, skeletal muscle, and joints Somatic receptors
Receptors in internal organs Autonomic receptors
Autonomic receptors aka Visceral receptors
Types of motor neurons (2) Somatic, Visceral
Structures effected by efferent neuron Effectors
Neuron effected by skeletal muscle Somatic
Neurons effected by smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands Visceral
ANS Autonomic nervous system
Neurons make up ANS (2) Somatic, Visceral
Connect CNS neurons together Interneurons
Groups of nerve fibers (axons and/or dendrites) Nerve
Only afferent Sensory nerves
Only efferent Motor nerves
Afferent and efferent (mostly peripheral nerves) Mixed nerves
Bundles of functionally related fibers in the CNS Nerve tracts/fasciculus
Electrochemical signal carried by the nerve Nerve impulses
More positive on the outside Polarized
More potassium on the inside and sodium on the outside Polarized
Polarized: Net ___ outside and ___inside +,-
Depolarized followed by depolarized Action potential
Reversal of the charges Depolarization
Only depolarizes an Neurofibral nodes Saltatory conduction
Located in the spinal canal Spinal cord
Transmits signals between the brain and PNS Spinal cord
Spinal cord extends from the ____ to about___ Foramen magnum, L1-L2
____ and ___ extend beyond the spinal cord to the sacrum Cauda equina, meninges
Unmyelinated interneurons and cell bodies of motor neurons Grey matter
H shaped in X section Grey matter
Myelinated nerve fibers White matter
Bundles of functionally related fibers Tracts (fasciculi)
Tracts (2) groups Ascending and descending
Carry impulses up the cord to the brain (sensory) Ascending tracts
Carry impulses down to cord from the brain (motor) Descending
Nerves from the cord to their periphery Spinal nerves
____pairs of spinal nerves 31
Continuation of spinal nerves beyond the spinal cord Cauda equina
# roots per spinal nerve 2
Afferent (sensory) fibers Dorsal root
Posterior root Dorsal root
Ceell bodies of sensory neurons Dorsal root ganglia
Efferent (motor) fibers Ventral root
Anterior root Ventral root
Involuntary response to a stimulus Reflex
Do not depend on the brain Spinal cord reflexes
The pathways of nerve impuses during a reflex reflex arc
Reflex arc parts (5) Receptors, Sensory neurons, CNS, motor neurons, effectors
Detect a stimulus and generate an impulse Receptors
Transmit impulse to CNS Sensory neurons
Interprets the impulse and redirects it CNS
Transmits impuls to effectors Motor neurons
Performs actions Effectors
Spinal cord to pons Medulla
Cardiac center Medulla
Vasomotor center Medulla
Respiratory center Medulla
Regulates heart rate Medulla
Regulate BP Medulla
Regulates respiration Medulla
Reflex center Medulla
Coughing, sneezing, swallowing, vomiting Medulla
Superior to the medulla Pons
Bridge (latin) Pons
From the pns to the hypothalamus Midbrain
Encloses cerebral aqueduct Midbrain
Visual, righting and auditory reflexes Midbrain
Posterior to the medulla, pons and 4th ventricle-inferior to occipital lobe of cerebrum Cerebellum
All functions concerned with movement Cerbellum
Coordination, regulation of muscle tone, posture, equalibrium Cerebellum
Involuntary Cerebellum
Works in conjunction with inner ear for equalibrium Cerebellum
Lateral to the 3rd ventricle and superior to the hypothalamus Thalamus
Sensation (other than smell) Thalamus
Sense comes to the ___if it is important then it is sent to the cerebrum for interptretation Thalamus
Blocks unwanted sensation Thalamus
Allows us to concentrate without distraction of thousands of sensations thalamus
Inferior to the thalamus, superior to the pituitary Hypothalamus
Produces hormones Hypothalamus
Stimulates secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland Hypothalamus
Regulates body temperature Hypothalamus
Sweating and shivering are ways to … Regulate body temperature
Regulate body temberature
Regulates food intake, monitoring nutrients and chemical levels Hypothalamus
Integration of ANS Hypothalamus
Causes visceral response to emotion (blushing, increase in heart rate) Hypothalamus
Regulates body rhythm (hormone secrestion, sleep cycles, mood change) Hypothalamus
2hemispheres, several lobes, connected by corpus callosum Cerebrum
R & L___contain R&L ___ hemispheres, ventricles
Surface of cerebrum Cerebrtal cortex
Non Myelinated cell bodies Grey matter
White matter is ___to grey matter Internal
Folds (convolutions) Gyri
Small grooves between gyri Sulci
Deep grooves separate lobes and hemispheres Fissures
Anterior part of the brain Frontal lobes
Contralateral voluntary movement Motor areas (frontal lobes)
The largest portion of____ lobe is devoted to fine movement of the hands Frontal lobe
Causes contra lateral paralysis Stroke
Learned motor skills that require sequenced movement Pre motor area (frontal lobes)
Controls movement of mouth, tongue, larynx Bocca’s motor speech
Lobe superior and lateral Parietal
Interprets input from taste buds (overlaps temporal lobes) Taste areas
Lateral Temporal lobes
Interprets and learns input from reeptors in the nasal cavity Olfactory area
Receives input from the inner ear for hearing and interprets the sound such as speech Auditory area
Areas concerned with formulation of speech Speech areas
Hippocampus memory
Stores memories Hippocampus
Floor of the lateral ventricle Hippocampus
Posterier Occipital lobe
Interprets input from the eyes Visual area
Visual areas Occipital lobe
Paired masses of grey matter within the cerebral hemisphere Basal ganglia
Regulate and coordinate complex movement Basal ganglia
Band of 200 million fibers that connect the hemispheres Corpus callosum
Important with coordination left and right brain function Corpus callosum
Connective tissue membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord Meninges
Meningeal layers (3) Dura mater, Arachnoid, Pia mater
“Tough mother” Dura mater
Lines the cranium and vertebral canal Dura matter
Weblike strands that connect to pia mater Arachnoid
Contains CSF Subarachnoid space
Space between pia and arachnoid Subarachnoid space
“Gentle’ Pia mater
Inside the arachnoid Pia mater
Covers the brain and spinal cord Pia mater
Sugary, Salty, watery, crystal clear fluid CSF
Brings nutrients to CNS CSF
Removes waste products CSF
Cushions CSF
Flows through CNS CSF
Absorption equals__ Rate of production
Cranial nerves _NS Peripheral PNS
# Cranial nerves 12
Nerves that emerge from the brain Cranial nerves
CNS & PNS___division Structural
SNS & ANS___dividion Functional
SNS Somatic nervous system
ANS Autonomic nervous system
Voluntary compnent that innervates skeletal muscle SNS
Aka Visceral ANS
Fight of flight response Sympathetic respose
Dominant in stressful situations Sympathetic respnes
Rest and digest response Parasympathetic
Dominates in relaxed situations Parasympathetic
Compnent made up of visceral motor neurons that supply smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands-the effectors ANS
Interprets impulses from contralateral sensory organs (skin, muscles, tendons) General sensory areas (parietal)
Created by: Sarsileigh