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SPH 261 Exam 3

QuestionAnswer
What are the five bones of the cranium? Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and sphenoid.
Which bones of the cranium are paired? Parietal and temporal.
Which bones of the cranium are unpaired? Frontal, occipital, and sphenoid.
What are the four facial bones? Zygomatic, maxilla, mandible, and palatine.
Which facial bones are paired? Zygomatic, maxilla, and palatine.
Which facial bone is unpaired? Mandible.
What are the three ligaments of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)? Temporomandibular, stylomandibular, and sphenomandibular.
What are the three directions of movement possible for the temporomandibular joint? Upward and downward, side to side, and backward and forward.
Name the three muscles of the pharynx. Stylopharyngeus, middle constrictor, and inferior constrictor.
What is the function of the stylopharyngeus? Pulls the pharyngeal tube upward and draws the lateral wall of the pharynx toward the side.
What is the function of the middle constrictor? Pulls middle part of posterior pharyngeal wall forward and lateral walls inward.
What is the function of the inferior constrictor? Pulls lower part of posterior pharyngeal wall forward and draws sidewalls inward.
Name the seven muscles that operate on the mandible. Masseter, Temporalis, Internal Pterygoid, External Pterygoid, Digastric, Mylohyoid, Geniohyoid.
What is the function of the masseter? Elevates mandible (closes mouth).
What is the function of the temporalis? Elevates mandible.
What is the function of the internal (medial) pterygoid? Elevates mandible and protrudes mandible.
What is the function of the external (lateral) pterygoid? Depresses mandible (opens mouth), protrudes mandible, and moves mandible laterally.
What is the function of the digastric? Contraction pulls upward on the hyoid bone or downward on the mandible, depresses jaw.
What is the function of the mylohyoid? With the hyoid fixed, contraction will lower the mandible.
What is the function of the geniohyoid? Lowers the mandible.
What is the buccal cavity? Small space between the gums/teeth and lips or cheek.
Why is the tongue referred to as a muscular hydrostat? It maintains a constant volume as the muscles contract and provides own skeletal support.
Name the four intrinsic muscles of the tongue. Superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal, transverse, and vertical.
What is the function of the superior longitudinal muscle of the tongue? Moves tip and sides of tongue upward and shortens tongue.
What is the function of the inferior longitudinal muscle of the tongue? Moves tip of tongue downward and shortens tongue.
What is the function of the transverse muscle of the tongue? Narrows and elongates the tongue.
What is the function of the vertical muscle of the tongue? Flatten/broaden tongue; transverse and vertical muscles work together to protrude the tongue.
Name the four extrinsic muscles of the tongue. Genioglossus, Hyoglossus, Palatoglossus, Styloglossus.
What is the function of the genioglossus? Protrudes tongue and depresses tongue.
What is the function of the hyoglossus? Depresses tongue and retracts tongue.
Name the five categories of lip muscle functions. Sphincter, Transverse, Angular, Vertical, and Cervical.
Describe the sphincter category of the lip. Circular fibers that provides constriction of a part of passageway and relaxes to allow passage.
Describe the transverse category of the lip. Course horizontally from origin and insert into obicularis oris.
Describe the angular category of the lip. Approach corners of mouth obliquely from above or below.
Describe the vertical category of the lip. Enter corners of mouth from directly above or below.
Describe the cervical category of the lip. Originates from cervical vertebral area.
Which muscle is in the sphincter category? Obicularis oris.
What is the function of the obicularis oris? Closes mouth and puckers lips.
Which muscles are in the transverse category? Buccinator and risorius.
What is the function of the buccinator? Compress lips and cheeks against teeth and draws mouth corner laterally.
What is the function of the risorius? Pulls corner of mouth backward and toward the side.
Which muscles are in the angular category? Zygomatic major, zygomatic minor, levator labii superioris, levator labii superioris aleque nasi, and depressor labii inferioris.
What is the function of the zygomatic major? Draws mouth angle superiorly and laterally (broad smile).
What is the function of the zygomatic minor? Elevates upper lip and pulls corner of mouth upward.
What is the function of the levator labii superioris? Elevates upper lip and outward turning of upper lip.
What is the function of the levator labii superioris aleque nasi? Elevates upper lip and dilates nostril.
What is the function of the depressor labii inferioris? Pulls lower lip downward and may turn lower lip outward.
Which muscles are in the vertical category? Mentalis, levator anguli oris, depressor anguli oris.
What is the function of the mentalis? Upward displacement of soft tissue of chin, forces lower lip against alveolar process of mandible.
What is the function of the levator anguli oris? Pulls corner of mouth upward; can also elevate lower lip against upper lip to assist forcing lips together.
What is the function of the depressor anguli oris? Forces lips together by pulling upper lip downward against lower lip.
Which muscle is in the cervical category? Platysma.
What is the function of the platysma? Pulls skin of the neck towards the mandible; also pulls the lower lip downward.
Which three cranial nerves innervate the pharyngeal muscles? Glossopharyngeal (9), Vagus (10), and Accessory (11).
Which two cranial nerves innervate the mandible? Trigeminal (5) and Hypoglossal (12)
Which two cranial nerves innervate the tongue muscles? Accessory (11) and Hypoglossal (12)
Which two cranial nerves innervate the lip muscles? Trigeminal (5) and Facial (7)
Which cranial nerves carry sensory information from the pharynx? Trigeminal (5), Facial (7), Glossopharyngeal (9), and Vagus (10)
Which cranial nerves carry sensory information from the mandible? Trigeminal (5) and Hypoglossal (12)
Which cranial nerves carry sensory information from the tongue? Trigeminal (5), Facial (7), Glossopharyngeal (9), and Vagus (10)
Which cranial nerves carry sensory information from the lips? Trigeminal (5) and Facial (7)
Name five types of sensory information about the speech production muscles carried out by the cranial nerves. Muscle length, rate of change of muscle length, muscle tension, joint position and movement, touch, surface pressure, deep pressure, surface deformation, temperature, vibration, hair deflection.
What are four techniques that can be used to record the movement of speech articulators? X-ray motion picture (videofluoroscopy), Ultrasound, MRI, Electropalatography, and fleshpoint tracking systems.
What is a technique that measure tongue-palate contact? Electropalatography.
In general, what does "flesh point tracking" refer to? Strain gauge, 3D motion capture, articulography.
What are the advantages of flesh point tracking systems for studying speech production? High temporal (time) resolution, safe.
What are the disadvantages of flesh point tracking systems for studying speech production? Sparse spatial resolution, captures information about the oral cavity only.
What are the advantages of ultrasound systems for studying speech production? Safe, convenient, portable.
What are the disadvantages of ultrasound systems for studying speech production? Typically only useful for imaging tongue surface; grainy images.
What are the advantages of MRI for studying speech production? Relatively high quality images and safe.
What are the disadvantages of MRI for studying speech production? Takes a long time, not for claustrophobic people, large.
Which two tongue muscles are activated when producing the vowel /i/? Genioglossus (anterior) and genioglossus (posterior).
Which two tongue muscles are activated when producing the vowel /a/? Hyoglossus and styloglossus.
Which two tongue muscles are activated when producing the vowel /u/? Genioglossus (posterior) and styloglossus.
Which two tongue muscles are activated when producing the vowel /æ/? Hyoglossus and genioglossus (anterior).
Created by: schee