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Classic Labs/Finding

Lab/diagnostic finding vs Diagnosis/disease

Lab/diagnostic findingDiagnosis/disease
Anticentromere antibodies Scleroderma (CREST)
Antidemoglein (epithelial) antibodies Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)
Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies Goodpasture's syndrome (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis
Antihistone antibodies Drug-induced SLE (hydralazine, isoniazid, phenytoin, procainamide)
Anti-IgG antibodies Rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonniere deformity)
Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) 1° biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal hypertension)
Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA) SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
Antiplatelet antibodies Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
Anti-topoisomerase antibodies Diffuse systemic scleroderma
Anti-transglutaminase/anti-gliadin/anti-endomysial antibodies Celiac disease (diarrhea, distention, weight loss)
"Apple core" lesion on abdominal x-ray Colorectal cancer (usually left-sided)
Azurophilic granular needles in leukemic blasts Auer rods (actue myelogenous leukemia, especially the promyelocytic [M3] type)
Bacitracin response Sensitive: Streptococcus pyogenes (group A); resistant: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)
"Bamboo spine" on x-ray Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27
Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)
Basophilic stippling of RBCs Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia
Bloody tap on LP Subarachnoid hemorrhage
"Boot-shaped" heart on x-ray Tetralogy of Fallot, RVH
Branching gram-positive rods with sulfur granules Actinomyces israelii
Bronchogenic apical lung tumor Pancoase tumor (can compress sympathetic ganglion and cause Horner's syndrome)
"Brown" tumor of bone Hemorrhage (hemosiderin) causes brown color of osteolytic cysts. Due to: 1. Hyperparathyroidism 2. Osteitis fibrosa cystica
Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy Chagas' disease (Trypanosoma cruzi)
Cellular crescents in Bowman's capsule Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonphritis
"Chocolate cyst" of ovary Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)
Cirrular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils Homer Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma)
Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs Cystic fibrosis (AR mutation to CFTR resulting in fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)
Decreased α-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum Down syndrome or other chromosomal abnormality
Degeneration of dorsal column nerves Tabes dorsalis (3° syphilis)
Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra Parkinson's disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)
Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum Curschmann's spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)
Disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid Call-Exner bodies (granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary)
Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargemnt and hyperchromasia Koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer)
Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies "Owl's-eye" appearance of CMV
Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei "Orphan Annie" eye nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell Mallory bodies (alcoholic liver disease)
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell Lewy body (Parkinson's disease)
Eosinophilic globule in liver Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)
Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cells Rabies virus (Lyssavirus)
Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain Senile plaques (Alzheimer's disease)
Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions ("owls eye") Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin's lymphoma)
Glomerulus-like struction surrounding vessel in germ cells Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)
"Hair-on-end" (crew cut) appearance on x-ray β-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (marrow expansion)
hCG elevated Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo)
Heart nodules (granulomatous) Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)
Heteropphile antibodies Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)
High level of D-dimers DVT, pulmonary embolism, DIC
Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesion in middle or lower lung lobes (can calcify) Ghon complex (1° TB: Mycobacterium bacilli)
"Honeycomb lung" on x-ray Interstitial fibrosis
Hypersegmented neutrophils Megaloblastic anemia (B12 deficiency: neurologic symptoms; folate deficiency: no neurologic symptoms)
Hypochromic, microcytic anemia Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (HbF sometimes present)
Increased α-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum Dating error, anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
Increase uric acid levels Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, loop and thiazide diuretics
Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet-like bodies Cowdry type A bodies (HSV or CMV)
Iron-containing nodules in alveolar spetum Ferruginous bodies (asbestosis: increase chance of mesothelioma)
Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes, immunodeficiency Chediak-Higashi disease (congenital failure of phagolysosome formation)
"Lead pipe" appearance of colon on x-ray Ulcerative colitis (loss of haustra)
Linear appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence Goodpasture's syndrome
Low serum ceruloplasmin Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)
"Lumpy-bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence Poststreptococcal glomerulonphritis (immune complex deposition of IgG and C3b)
Lytic ("hole-punched") bone lesions on x-ray Multiple myeloma
Mammary gland ("blue-domed") cyst Fibrocystic change of the breast
Monoclonal antibody spike 1. Multiple myeloma (called the M protein; usually IgG or IgA) 2. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS; normal consequence of aging) 3. Waldenstrom's (M protein = IgM) macroglobulinemia 4. Primary amyloidosis
Monoclonal globulin protein in blood/urine Bence Jones proteins (multiple myeloma [kappa or lambda Ig light chains in urine]), Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (IgM)
Mucin-filled cell with peripheral nucleus Signet ring (gastric carcinoma)
Narrowingof bowel lumen on barium radiograph "String sign" (Crohn's disease)
Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals Gout (monosodium urate crystals)
Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)
Novobiocin response Sensitive: Staphylococcus epidermidis; resistant: Staphylococcus saprophyticus
"Nutmeg" appearance of liver Chronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure
"Onion-skin" periosteal reaction Ewing's sarcoma (malignant round-cell tumor)
Optochin response Sensitive: Streptococcus pneumoniae; resistant: Viridans streptococcus
Periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular area Codman's triangle on x-ray (osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis)
Podocyte fusion on EM Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)
Polished, "ivory-like appearance of bone at cartilage erosion Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis
Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of protein tau Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer's disease and CJD)
Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy Glioblastoma multiforme
RBC casts in urine Acute glomerulonephritis
Rectangular, crystal-like, cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)
Renal epithelial casts in urine Actue toxic/viral nephrosis
Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate)
Rib notching Coarctation of the aorta
Ring-enhancing brain lesion in AIDS Toxoplasma gondii
Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells ("starry sky" appearance on histology) Burkitt's lymphoma (t[8:14] c-myc activation, associated with EBV; "black sky" made up of malignant cells)
Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons Pick bodies (Pick's disease: progressive dementia, changes in personality)
"Soap bubble" in femur or tibia on x-ray Giant cell tumor bone (generally benign)
"Spikes" on basement membrane, "dome-like" subepithelial deposits Membranous glomerulonephritis (may progress to nephrotic syndrome)
Stacks of red blood cells Rouleaux formation (high ESR, multiple myeloma)
Stripped vaginal epithelial cells "Clue cells" Gardneralla vainalis)
"Tennis-racket" -shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells Birbeck granules (histiocytosis X: eosinophilic granuloma)
Thrombi made of white/red layers Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)
"Thumb sign" on lateral x-ray Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenzae)
Thyroid-like appearance of kidney Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis
"Tram-track" appearance on LM Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles Fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)
WBCs that look "smudged" CLL (almost always B cell; affects the elderly)
"Wire loop" glomerular appearance on LM Lupus nephropathy
Yellow CSF Xanthochromia (previous subarachnoid hemorrhage)
Created by: zdevilbiss