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Neurobiology Test 2

Presynaptic cell before the synapse
Postsynaptic after synapse
synaptic cleft space between cells in chemical synapses
gap junctions connections between two cells in electrical symnapses
connexons Gap junctions are formed by these proteins
Chemical synapses most neuron-neuron; all neuron-muscle
Otto Lowei (1926) tested the idea that cells communicate by releasing chemicals; experimented on the vagus nerve through the frog heart.
Chemical Response (1-5) 1. Neurotransmitter synthesized and packed into vesicles in the terminal. 2. Action potential through synaptic bouton. 3. Presynaptic terminal depolarized; opens Voltage gated channels. 4. Ca2+ influx. 5. Ca2+ helps vesicles fuse w/membrane.
Chemical Response (6-10) 6. Neurotransmitter released. 7. Diffuses across cleft and bind to receptor proteins in PostSyn. 8. Binding leads to channels opening. 9. Resting membrane poten. changes as ions move. 10. NT removed or inactivated from cleft. 11. Vesicle membrane recycled
Neurotransmitter 1. Must be present w/in the presynaptic neuron. 2. Must be released in response to presynaptic depolarization and the release must be calcium dependent. 3. Must bind to specific receptors on the postsynaptic cell.
Examples of Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine, Serotonin, Dopamine, Substance P.
ACh binds to AChR AChR is activated and becomes an open channel. K+ out and Na+ influx. Depolarization in post synaptic cell (causes muscle contraction).
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) The enzyme that recycles ACh and allows the receptors to close
Miniature Endplate Potentials (MEPPs) Falt & Katz. Caused by random calcium causing a few vesicles to fuse and stimulate the channels to open. Proves vesicle size is uniform at 1 mV--quantal release (packet release)
Endplate potential another term for an action potential that is exclusive to neuron and muscle interaction
Quantal release the release of neurotransmitters in packets
Neurotoxins chemicals that negatively impact the ability of neurotransmitters or the neural system, i.e. EDTA, Botulinum, black widow spider venom, bungarotoxin
Calcium Influx blockers (vesicle fusion and ACh release) EDTA (binds calcium), Ca Ionophores (create artificial calcium channels)
Vesicle Fusion (Dockin and exocytosis) botulinum prevents docking, black widow spider venom causes all vesicles to dock and release
Block AChR bungarotoxin (binds to the site), Curare
Block AChE atropine gives a longer last muscle response, belladona
Compound action potential summation of many cells (recording from many nerves)
End plate current (EPC) the measure of ion flow across the membrane, inward flow of sodium down, outward flow of potassium up
EPSP (excitatory post synaptic potential) takes cells closer to threshold (all EPP in muscle cells)
IPSP (inhibitory post synaptic potential) keeps cells from reaching threshold by opening channels to bring - ions (chloride) in
Muscle cells always excitatory, always have one input
Temporal summation time (closer) and it builds
Spatial summation potentials originating in differing parts of the cell build on one another
plasticity changeability, amenability
Facilitation an increase in the second post-synaptic response (PSP) after closely spaced stimuli due to prolonged calcium levels in the pre-synaptic cell
Postsynpatic depression due to an absence of neurotransmitter vesicles in the presynaptic cell
Potentiation tetanic stimulus/tetany and post-tetanic response
Tetanic stimulus/tetany rapid stimuli that cause tatanic responses/hyper-responses that are together
Post-tetanic potentiation the increased EPSP following a distance of time after tetany
Habituation when a response to a repeated stimulus decreases (ex. gill contraction and siphon in Aplysia)
sensitization generalization of one stimulus to another stimulus
Why sensitization (short term) happens 1. Interneuron releases serotonin. 2. Serotonin binds to receptors on sensory terminal. 3. Internal signal transduction pathway. 4. Presynaptic K+ channels get phosphorylated and it closes them
Long term sensitization Action of CREB
sensory information processing 1. Environmental stimulus (light, sound, touch, pressure, heat, pain, etc). 2. Sensory transduction changes signal from one energy to electrical. 3. Intensity coding. 4. Sensory analysis. 5. Sensorimotor integration. (6) Motor output
Afferent towards the CNS (sensory)
Efferent away from the CNS (motor)
Sensory system 1. Peripheral receptors. 2. Sensory neurons. 3. Dorsal root ganglia. 4. Spinal cord. 5. [Brainstem]. 6. Thalamus. 7. Cerebral cortex.
Grey matter where cell bodies are located
white matter where neurons/axons are located
How to determine stimulus intensity Stimulus intensity is either positively or negatively correlated to the frequency
Stimulation function stimulation generates a receptor potential--channels are opened--excitation occurs and depolarization of sensory cell--can become an action potential--mechanical to electrical/chemical
sensation the ability to transduce, encode, and perceive information generated by internal and external stimuli
mechanoreceptors afferent fibers encapsulated by special receptor cells- generally with lower threshold and a higher sensitivity to stimulation
free nerve endings afferent fibers that lack specialized receptor cells
Afferents differ in: axon diameter, temporal dynamics, and receptive fields
two-point discrimination the minimum inter-stimulus distance required to perceive two distinct stimuli
Rapidly adapting response lessons or stops after repeated stimulation - useful for perceiving changes in stimulus
slowly adapting useful for providing spatial attributes of the stimulus such as size and shape
Nociceptors pain receptors--unmyelinated or slow
Parallel pathways differing somatic responses to the same stimuli
Haptics active touching--involves complex spatiotemporal pattern interpretation
Stereognosis being able to identify an object based on manipulation
Merkel cell afferents slow adapting fibers, 25% of afferents in hand, create ridges that form fingerprints, adept at points edges and curvature, differentiate ~0.5mm
Meissnerr afferents rapid, even more dense ~40%. Adept at grip and vibrations.
Pacinian corpuscles rapid, 10-15%, 10 nm perception displacement, huge range, detect movements using tools
Ruffini slowly adapting fibers, 20%, recognize finger stretches
Proprioception sense of self in space.
muscle spindles 4-8 special intra-fusal muscle fibers found in connective tissue--recognize changes in muscle length
Golgi tendon organs composed of extrafusal muscle fibers, detect tension in muscles
joint receptors similar to skin receptors, not used for proprioception, but used for positioning of fingers
Dorsal column the area of white matter in the spinal cord that takes in a majority of the sensory information
Lateral inhibition the capacity of an excited neuron to reduce the activity of its neighbor
thermoreceptors detect changes in temperature (specifically, heat and lack of heat)
Created by: berge
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