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Lab Nutrition Chapter on Carbohydrates

What are carbohydrates made of? Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
What percentage of a diet should be CHOs? 45-65%
What are the two types of CHOs? Starches and sugars
Where does most of the energy on Earth come from? The sun--photosynthesis
What is a monosaccharide? simple single sugar
What are the three monosaccharides? Glucose, fructose, and galactose
Why is glucose important? All sugars must be converted to glucose to be used by the body
What is the sweetest monosaccharide? Fructose
What is normal blood glucose? 70-105mg/dl
Where is fructose absorbed? small intestine
In what sources can glucose be found? fruit juices, hydrolysis of starch, cane sugar, maltose, lactose, sucrose
In what sources can fructose be found? fruit, juices, honey, hydrolysis of sucrose from cane sugar
In what sources can galactose be found? hydrolysis of lactose
What are the functions of CHOs? Provide energy, brain function and focus, Protein Sparing Action, Antiketogenic Effect, CNS function
Where is glycogen stored? Liver and skeletal muscle
Why do we have glycogen reserves? they support urgent muscle responses and protect brain cells
What is the Protein Sparing Action? protein will be used for energy only if CHOs are not available
What are ketones? toxic acids that form as a result as a breakdown of fat
How do CHOs help with ketones? CHOs break down ketones
What happens if CHOs are unavailable? Ketoacidosis
When does ketoacidosis happen? starvation, uncontrolled diabetes, and poor low-carb diets
What are the concerns of a high CHO diet? decreased fat/protein intake will lead to deficiencies of essential fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals, as well as high blood sugar and diabetes
What are the concerns of a low CHO diet? diet is lacking in fruits and vegetables, and the increase in protein results in extra work for the kidneys with complications
What are the two types of fiber? Dietary and functional
What are the two types of dietary fiber? Soluble and insoluble
Where can insoluble fiber be found? materials inside a plant, stems/leaves of vegetables, coverings of seeds/grains, lignin
What are the functions of insoluble fiber? satiety, increasing fecal bulk, promotion of peristalsis, regulate colon pressure, prevents constipation, combine with bile to prevent resorption, contribute to texture of foods
What is peristalsis? Muscle movements that push the food through the digestive system
What are some sources of insoluble dietary fiber? whole wheat bread, popcorn, pears, peanuts, apples, peas, bananas
What are the two kinds of soluble dietary fiber? Pectin and gums
What is pectin? A thick, sticky substance found in the cell walls of plants that binds to cholesterol to prevent absorption, slows gastric emptying, and prolongs satiety
What are the functions of soluble fiber? binding with fatty acids, lowering LDL, reducing risk of heart disease, regulation of blood sugar, prolonging satiety
What are some sources of soluble dietary fiber? oats, carrots, citrus fruits, apples, dried beans, barley
What is functional fiber? a non-digestible polysaccharide that is either commercially made or extracted from natural sources but used in other ways
What are the health benefits of fiber? increases fecal mass, holds water and bacteria, binds to fatty acids and cholesterol, low glycemic index, reduced work for the pancreas
What is the composition of sucrose? glucose + fructose
Which disaccharide is "Table Sugar"? sucrose
What is the most prevalent disaccharide? sucrose
Which disaccharide accounts for 30% of Caloric intake in the American diet? sucrose
What is the composition of lactose? glucose + galactose
When is lactose formed? during lactation
What is the least sweet disaccharide? lactose
What is the composition of maltose? glucose + glucose
What are the sources of sucrose? sugar cane, sugar beet, carrots, pineapple
What is the source of lactose? milk
What is the source of maltose? starch digestion, malt, and germinating cereals
How are disaccharides used? They are hydrolyzed to glucose, which is used as a source of fuel for cells
What are sugar alcohols? substances that sweeten without adding Calories
What are complex CHOs? polysaccharides
What is the most important polysaccharide? starch
What is resistant starch? starch that cannot be completely digested
What are the major sources of complex CHOs? vegetables, legumes, potatoes, grains, pasta, rice
What is the stored form of polysaccharides? glycogen
Where is glycogen stored? the liver and skeletal muscles
What are dextrins? intermediate products of starch breakdown that occurs constantly through digestion
What are oligosaccharides? small portions of digested starch containing 3-10 molecules of glucose
What is the glycemic index? a system of measuring the effect of food on blood glucose levels
What affects the glycemic index? type of CHO, cooking method, food processing, other substances (such as fiber)
What is considered low GI? less than 55
What is considered intermediate GI? 55-70
What is considered high GI? greater than 70
What is the preferred energy source of the colon? resistant starch
Created by: 706091315