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HA Ch. 17 (18)

The Endocrine System

the nervous system and the endocrine system function together to monitor and adjust physiological activities for the regulation of homeostasis
homeostasis is the maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment
the regulatory effects of the endocrine system are...compared to the... long-term ongoing metabolic processes...short-term effects of the nervous system
endocrine organs are..into... ductless glands that release hormones...blood or lymph
hormones are messenger molecules that travel in the circulatory vessels and signal phsyiological changes in target cells
hormonally regulated processes include reproduction, growth, mobilization of body defenses against stress, maintenance of the proper chemistry of the blood and body fluids and regulation of cellular metabolism
the endocrine organs are small and widely separated from one another within the body
the pure endocrine organs are the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal glands
other organs that contain endocrine cells are the gonads, pancreas, kidney, alimentary canal, heart, thymus and skin
the hypothalamus of the brain is a neuroendocrine organ
endocrine organs are richly vascularized
although most endocrine cells are modified epithelial cells, others are neurons, muscle cells, or fibroblast-like cells
most hormones are either amino acid derivatives or steriods
amino acid derivates include amines, peptides and proteins
steroids are lipid based molecules derived from cholesterol
hormones produce their effects by leaving the capillaries and binding to specific receptor molecules in or on their target cells
such binding triggers a preprogrammed response in the target cell
endocrine organs are stimulated to release their hormones by humoral, neural or hormonal stimuli
hormonal secretion is controlled by feedback loops
the hypothalamus of the brain regulates many functions of the endocrine system through the hormones it secretes
the golf suspended from the pituitary gland...diencephalon of the brain by its stalk (infundibulum)
the pituitary gland lies in the hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
the pituitary gland consists of an anterior adenohypophysis and a posterior neurohypophysis
the anterior adenohypophysis has three pars pars distalis, pars intermdedia, pas tuberalis
pars distalis (anterior lobe) is the largest, anteriormost part of the adenohypophysis
cells in the pars distalis cluster into spheres and branching cords
the five cell types of the pars distalis secrete seven protein hormones
somatotropic cells secrete...and are the most growth hormone...abundant cells in the pars distalis
mammotropic cells secrete prolactin
thyrotropic cells secrete thryoid stimulating hormone
corticotropic cells secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone and melanocyte-stimulating hormone
gonadotropic cells secrete follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
growth hormone (somatotropic) stimulates growth of the body and skeleton
prolactin signals milk production
thyrotropic signals the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone
adrenocorticotropic signals the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
melanocyte-stimulating hormone causes the skin to darken
follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone together are called gonadotropins
gonadotropins signal the maturation of sex cells and the secretion of sex hormones
four of the seven hormones (FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH) stimulate other endocrine glands to secrete and are called tropic hormones
pars intermedia is located just posterior to pars distalis
pars tuberalis is located just superior to pars intermedia, and wraps around the infundibulum like a tube
the posterior neurohypophysis also has three pars pars nervosa, infundibular stalk, median eminence
pars nervosa is the inferiormost part of the neurohypophysis
median eminence is the... cone shaped portion of the hypothalamus
the neurohypophysis does NOT only make hormones...stores and releases hormones produced in the hypothalamus
the pituitary hypophyseal artery supplies the entire adenohypophysis and the infundibulum
the inferior hypophyseal artery supplies the pars nervosa
the hypothalamus of the brain controls the secretion of hormones from the adenohypophysis
hypothalamus controls the secretion of hormones from the adenohypophysis in the following manner: first, certain hypothalamic nuerons make releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones, which they secrete into primary capillary plexus in the median eminence
the releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones then travel a... hypophyseal portal veins...secondary capillary plexus in the pars distalis
the hormones then leave this plexus to signal...which then enter the... the adenohypophyseal cells to secrete their hormones...secondary capillary plexus and travel to their target cells throughout the body
the neurohypophsis consits of...which contains the... nervous tissue...hypothalamic hypophyseal axon tract
the cell bodies of the neurons that form the hypothalamic-hypophyseal axon tract are located in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus
the cell bodies of the neurons that form the tract synthesize...and store them in their oxtyocin and ADH...axon terminals in the pars nervosa
the stored hormones in the neurons of the hypothalamic-hypophseal axon tract are then released into capillaries when the neurons fire
ADH increases resorption of water from the urine and raises blood pressure
oxytocin induces labor and ejection of milk from the breasts
ADH and oxytocin are involved with social bonding
the thyroid gland, which lies on the...consists of... superior trachea...spherical follicles covered by epithelial follicle cells and separated by a capillary rich CT
thyroid follicles are filled with a colloid of thyroglobulin
thyroglobulin is a storage protein containing thyroid hromone
thryoid hormone, which made continuously by... iodine and increases basal metabolic rate...follicle cells
thyroid hormone is stored within the...until... follicles...TSH from the pituitary gland signals the follicle cells to reclaim the TH and secrete it into the extrafollicular capillaries
parafollicular cells protrude from the ...and secrete the hormone... thyroid follicles...calcitonin
calcitonin can lower blood calcium concentrations in children
several pairs of parathyroid glands lie on the dorsal aspect of the thyroid gland
the chief parathyroid cells are arranged in...and secrete.. thick, branching cords...parathyroid hormone
parathyroid hormone raises low blood calcium levels
the paired adrenal glands lie on the superior surface of each kidney
each adrenal gland has two distinct parts, an outer cortex and an inner medulla
the adrenal medulla consists of sperical clusters of chromaffin cells
upon sympathetic stimulation, these chromaffin cells secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood
the adrenal cortex has three layers, the zona glomerulosa, fasciculata, reticularis
outer zona glomerulosa contains cells arranged in spherical clusters
middle zona fasciculata's cells are arranged in parallel cords
inner zona reticularis' cells are arranged in a branching network
the steriod hormones secreted by the...include... adrenal cortex...mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and dihydroepiandrosterone, DHEA
mineralocorticoids from zona glomerulosa...water and sodium...increasing resorption of these substances by the kidney
glucocorticoids from the zona fasciculata and reticularis...cope with stress...stabilizing blood glucose levels
in large quantities, glucocorticoids also inhibit inflammation in the immune system
the androgen dihydroepiandrosterone, DHEA from the...has...functions but they are probably... zona reticularis...unclear...beneficial
steriod-secreting cells, including the cells in the...have an abundant... gonads that secrete sex hormones...SER, tubular cristae in their mitochondria, abundant lipid droplets, and no secretory granules
the pineal gland, on the roof of the...contains diencephalon..pinealocytes
pinealocytes cluster into spherical clumps and cordsd separated by dense particles of calcium called pineal sand
pinealocytes secrete the hormone melatonin
melatonin helps regulate circadian rhythms
pnealocyte secretion is signaled by the suprachiasmtic nucleus of the hypothalamus through a sympathetic pathway
the endocrine structures in the pancrease the the spherical pancreatic islets
the islets contain alpha, beta, delta, and F cells
islet cells are arranged in twisting cords
alpha cells secrete glucagon
glucagon raises blood sugar levels
beta cells secrete insulin which lowers blood sugar levels
the thymus is an important organ of the immune system
the thymus secretes thymic hormones which are essential for the production of T lymphocytes
various cells in the ovaries and testes secrete steriod sex hormones, estrogens, and androgens
some muscle cells in the atria of the heart secrete atrial natriuretic peptide
ANP stimulates loss of body fluids and salts through the production of a sodium-rich urine
endocrine cells are scattered within the epithelium of the digestive tract and other gut-derived organs
the epithelial cells, which have, make up the... neuron-like...diffuse neuroendocrine system
there are many classes of...cells, some of which secrete hormones that ... diffuse neuroendocrine system...regulate digestion
the placenta secretes hormones of pregnancy
the kidney secretes rennin and erythropoietin
the skin produces vitamin D
Created by: handrzej



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