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HA Ch. 16 (17)

The Nervous System V: The General and Special Senses

General visceral sensory the visceral organs monitor temperature, pain, irritation, chemical changes and stretch
peripheral sensory receptors pick up stimuli from inside and outside the body and initiate impulses in sensory axons
peripheral sensory receptors are classified by...of the stimulus location
the locations of peripheral sensory receptor stimuli include exteroceptors, interoceptors, and proprioceptors
exteroceptors are sensitive to stimuli arising outside the body
interoceptors are sensitive to stimuli from internal viscera
proprioceptors body movements sensory information
peripheral sensory receptors are also classified by the stimulus.. detected
detected stimulus: mechanoreceptors respond to mechanical forces such as touch, pressure, stretch and vibrations
mechanoreceptors include tactile receptors, baroreceptors, and proprioceptors
tactile receptors detect touch, pressure and vibration
baroreceptors detect pressure changes in the walls of blood vessels and the walls of the digestive, reproductive and urinary tracts
proprioceptors are muscle spindles that respond to the position of the joints, the tension in the tendons and ligaments, and the state of muscular contraction
detected stimulus: thermoreceptors respond to...and conduct temp changes...sensations along the same pathways that carry pain sensation
stimulus detected: chemoreceptors respond to chemicals in solution and changes in blood chemistry
stimulus detected: photoreceptors are sensitive to light
stimulus detected: nociceptors respond to stimuli that result in pain
nociceptors include fast pain(prickling sensation) and slow pain (burning and aching sensation)
peripheral sensory receptors can be classified by structure
structure; free dendritic endings respond chiefly to pain and temperature
dendritic endings include merkel discs and root hair plexuses
merkel disc (tactile disc) is disc shaped...innervated by a epithelial cell...dendrite (slowly adapting receptors)
root hair plexuses are receptors for light touch that monitor bending of hairs (rapidly adapting receptor)
structure; encapsulated dendritic endings all seem to be...and consist of... or more end fibers of sensory neurons enclosed by a capsule of CT
the capsule of dendritic endings serves to amplify stimulus or filter out wrong types of stimuli
encapsulated dendritic endings include meissner's corpuscles, krause's end bulbs, pacinian's corpuscles, ruffini's corpuscles and proprioceptors
meissner's corpuscles are sensitive to fine, discriminative touch
krause's end bulbs are a type of meissner's corpuscle for fine touch
pacinian's corpuscles, also called..., respond to... lamellated corpuscles...deep pressure, specifically vibrations
ruffini's corpuscles resond to pressure and light touch
proprioceptors are sensitive to stretch in locomotory organs
proprioceptors include muscle spindles, gogli tendon organs and joint kinesthetic receptors
muscle spindles respond to changes in length of a muscle
gogli tendon organs monitor tension within tendons
joint kinesthetic receptors monitor stretch in synovial joints
visceral sensory fibers run within the autonomic nerves especially within the vagus and the sympathetic nerves
the sympathetic nerves carry most pain fibers from the visceral organs of the body trunk
a simplified description of most visceral sensory pathways to the brain; sensory neurons spinothalamic tract...thalamus...visceral sensory cortex
visceral pain is induced by stretching, infection and cramping of internal organs but seldom by cutting or scraping these organs
pain in visceral organs is referred to somatic regions of the body that receive innervation from the same spinal cord segments
many visceral reflexes are spinal reflexes such as defecation reflex
some visceral reflexes, however, involve only peripheral neurons
the special senses include olfaction, gustation, equilibrium, hearing and vision
receptors for the special senses are located in specialized areas or sense organs
sensory receptors are specialized cells that send sensations to the CNS when stimulated
receptor specificity allows each receptor to respond to particular stimuli
free nerve endings of receptor specificity are the simplest form of receptors
receptor specificity; receptive fields are the areas monitored by a single receptor cell
interpretation of sensory information includes tonic and phasic receptors
tonic receptors are constantly sending signals to the CNS
phasic receptors become active only when the conditions change
adaptation is the reduction in sensitivity in the presence of a consatn stimulus
peripheral adaptation involves changes in receptor sensitivity
central adaptation is inhibition along the sensory pathways
fast-adapting receptors are phasic
slow-adapting receptors are tonic
sensory limitations incomplete info provided by our sensory receptors
sensory limitations are due to not enough receptors for every stimulus, limited ranges of sensitivity of our receptors and CNS interpretation of a stimulus is filtered and limited
the chemical senses include taste and smell
taste (gustation) provides info about the food and liquids that we eat
gustatory receptors are clustered in taste budes, each of which contains gustatory cells that project taste hairs through a narrow taste pore
most taste buds are on the tongue, in the epithelium of fungiform and cicumvallate papillae
taste buds contain gustatory cells and basal cells that replace damaged gustatory cells
the gustatory cells are excited when taste-stimulating chemicals bind to their microvilli
the five basic qualitites of taste are sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami
the sense of taste is served by cranial nerves VII, IX, and X which send impulses to the medulla
from the medulla, taste impulses travel to the thalamus and the taste area of the cerebral cortex
the olfactory epithelium is located in the roof of the nasal cavity
olfactory epithelium contains olfactory receptors, supporting cells and basal cells
the olfactory receptor cells are modified ciliated bipolar neurons which are sensitive to chemicals dissolved in the overlying mucus
odor molecules bind to the cilia, exciting the neurons
axons of the olfactory receptor neurons form the filaments of the olfactory nerve
olfactory nerve axons transmit impulses to the olfactory bulb
in the olfactory bulb, these axons synapse with mitral cells in structures called glomeruli
after receiving input from the olfactory receptor neurons, the mitral cells send this olfactory info through the olfactory tract to the olfactory cortex and limbic system
disorders of smell include anosmia and uncinate fits
the eye is located in the bony orbit and is cushioned by fat
the cone-shaped orbit also contains nerves, vessels, and extrinsic muscles of the eye
eyebrows shade and protect the eyes
eyelids protect and lubricate the eyes of reflexive blinking
the free margins of the upper and lower eyelids are seperated by the palpebral fissure
the free margins of the upper and lower eyelids are connected at the medial canthus and the lateral canthus
the conjunctiva is the epithelium covering the inner surface of the eyelids and the outer surface of the eye
the mucus of the conjunctiva's mucus lubricates the eye surface
palprebral conjunctiva covers the inner surface of the eyelids
ocular conjunctiva (bulbar conjunctiva) covers the anterior surface of the eye
each eyelid contains a supporting tarsal plate, the roots of the eyelashes and tarsal and ciliary glands
each eyelash is monitored by a root hair plexus and displacement of the hair triggers a blinking reflex
large sebaceous glands, called the...are associated with the glands of zeis...eyelashes
muscles in the eyelids include the levator palpebrae superioris and the orbicularis oculi
tarsal glands that line the...of the eyelids secret a...that prevents palpebral margin...lipid-rich product...eyelids from sticking together
glands within the lacrimal caruncle at the...produce the medial canthus...thick secretions that contribute to the gritty deposits occasionally found after a good night's sleep
the lacrimal apparatus produces, distributes and removes tears
the lacrimal gland (tear gland on dorsolateral surface of the eye) secrets lacrimal fluid which is blinked medially across the eye surface and drained into the nasal cavity through lacrimal canaliculi
lacrimal fluid is slightly alkaline and contains lysozymes
the tears collect in the lacus lacrimalis and pass through the lacrimal punta before reaching the lacrimal canaliculi
superior and inferior lacrimal canaliculi are two small grooves in the surface of the lacrimal bone
lacrimal sac collects tears from the lacrimal canaliculi
nasolacrimal duct extends along the nasolacrimal canal formed by the lacrimal bone and the maxilla to deliver the tears to the inferior meatus on the same side of the nasal cavity
the six extrinsic eye muslces are lateral and medial rectus, superior and inferior rectus and superior and inferior obliques
lateral and medial rectus turn the eye laterally and medially
superior and inferior rectus elevates and epresses the eye and turns it medially
the superior and inferior obliques depress and elevate the eye and turn it laterally
the wall of the eye has three layers
the most external layer is the fibrous tunic and consists of the posterior sclera and corneal limbus
the tough sclera protects the eye and gives it shape
the corneal limbus is the clear window through which light enters the eye
the middle, pigmented...consists of the vascular tunic...choroid and ciliary body and iris
the choroid provides nutrients to the retina's photoreceptors and prevents the scattering of light within the eye
the ciliary body contains smooth ciliary muscles that control the shape of the lens and ciliary processes that secret aqueous humor and attach to the suspensory ligaments of the lens
the iris contains smooth muscle that changes the size of the pupil
the iris forms the boundary between the anterior and posterior chambers
the innermost...contains the... neural tunic...neural retina and the optic nerve
the retina consists of an outer pigmented layer and an inner neural layer which contains visual receptors and associated neurons
the neural layer contains photoreceptors (rods and cones) and other types of neurons
rods provide black and white vision in dim light
cones provide color vision in bright light
light stimulates the photoreceptors which signal bipolar cells
photoreceptors then send signals to ganglion cells which transmit signals to the brain via the optic nerve
horizontal cells and amacrine cells modify the signals passed between other retinal components
the axons of ganglion neurons run along the inner retinal surface toward the optic disc, forming the optic nerve
the outer segments of the rods and cones contain light-absorbing pigment in membrane covered discs
light modifies the light-absorbing pigment to initiate the flow of signals through the visual pathway
two important spots on the posterior retinal wall macula lutea and optic disc
macula lutea is concentrated with...and contains the..which is the area with the cones...fovea centralis...highest visual acuity
the optic disc is the blind spot
the optic disc is where axons of ganglion cells form the optic nerve
the outer third of the retina (...) is nourished by photoreceptors...capillaries in the choroid
the inner two thirds of the retina is supplied by the central vessels of the retina
the posterior segmentof the eye, posterior to the..., is called the lens...vitreous chamber
the vitreous chamber contains gel-like vitreous humor or body
the vitreous humor or body helps stabilize the shape of the eye and support the retina
the anterior segment of the eye, anterior to the..., is divided into the lens...anterior and posterior chambers by the iris
the anterior segment is filled with aqueous humor
aqueous humor continually forms at the, flows into the..., and drains into the, then ciliary processesin the posterior chamber...anterior chamber...scleral venous sinus...reenters the circulation
the biconvex lens helps to focus light and focuses a visual image on the retinal receptors
the biconvex lens is suspended in the eye by the ciliary zonule
the lens also lies posterior to the...and forms the.. cornea...anterior boundary of the vitreous chamber
tension in the ciliary zonule resists the lens's natural tendency to round up
as it enters the eye, light is bent by the...and focused on the... cornea and the lens...retina
the cornea accounts for most of the refraction, but the lens allows focusing on objects at different distances
the resting eye is set for distance vision
focusing on near objects requires accomodation
accomodation means allowing the... lens to round as ciliary muscles release tension on the ciliary zonule
during resting, the pupils constrict
focusing on near objects (accomodation) and pupil constriction are controlled by parasympathetic fibers in the oculomoter nerve
eye focusing disorders include myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, astigmatism
myopia nearsightedness
hyperopia farsightedness
presbyopia loss of lens elasticity with age
astigmatism is caused by unequal curvatures in different parts of the corneaor lens
the visual pathway to the brain begins with some processing of visual info in the retina
from the retina, ganglion cell axons carry impulses via the optic nerve, optic chiasma, and optic tract to the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus
thalamic neurons project to the primary visual cortex
at the optic chiasma, axons from the medial halves of the retinas decussate
decussation provides each visual cortex with info on the opposite half of the visual field as seen by both eyes
the visual cortex compares...and generates... the views from the two eyes...depth perception
visual inputs to the...and the...affect the function of other brainstem nuclei suprachiasmatic nucleus...pineal gland
thes uprachiasmatic nucleus and the pineal gland establish a visceral circadian rhythm that is tied to the day-night cycle and affects other metabolic processes
blinding disorders can result from damage to the retina and the cornea
damage to the retina age related macular degeneration and retinopahty of prematurity
damage to the cornea trachoma
the external ear is made of the auricle and external acoustic meatus
the auricle surrounds the...which ends at the... external acoustic meatus...tympanic membrane
the external ear functions in gathering sound waves
the tympanic membrane, or tympanum, transmits... sound vibrations to the middle ear
the middle ear is a small tympanic cavity within the temporal bone
the boundaries of the middle ear are the eardrum laterally, the bony wall of the inner ear medially, a bony roof, a thin bony floor, a posterior wall that opens into the mastoid antrum and an anterior wall that opens into the paryngotympanic tube
the middle ear encloses and protects the...which connect the... auditory ossicles...tympanic membrane with the receptor complex of the inner ear
the pharyngotympanic, or auditory, tube consists of...communicates with the..and equializes... bone and cartilage...nasopharynx...air pressure across the eardrum
the auditory ossicles include the malleus, incas, stapes
the ossicles help to amplify sound
the ossicles span the middle ear cavity
the ossicles transmit sound vibrations from the eardrum to the oval window
the tiny tensor tympani and stapedius muscles dampen the vibrations of very loud sounds
the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles contract to reduce the amount of motion of the tympanum when very loud sounds arrive
the inner ear contains the sensory organs for the perception of equilibrium and hearing
equilibrium bony labryinth
hearing membraneous labryinth
the inner ear consists of the bony and membraneous labryinths
bony labryinth contains semicircular canals, vestibule, cochlea
membraneous labryinth contains semicircular ducts, utricle and saccule, and cochlear duct
the bony labryinth contains...the membraneous labyrinth contains perilymph...endolymph
the vestibule includes a pair of membraneous sacs(saccule and utricle)
the saccule and utricle each contain a...which is a... of receptor epithelium that monitors static equilibrium and linear acceleration
the saccule and utricle are connected by a passageway that is continuous with the endolymphatic duct which terminates in the endolymphatic sac
a macula contains clusters of...whose... hair cells...steriocilia are anchored in an overlying otolithic membrane
the hair cells' stereocilia contact...which consist of... otolits...densely packed mineral crystals (statoconia) in a gelatinous matrix
forces on the otolithic membrane, caused by..., (actions) the gravity and linear acceleration of the head, bend the hairs and initiate impulses...vestibular nerve
the semicircular ducts lie in three planes of space and are continuos with the utricle
the semicircular ducts provide info about the direction and strength of varied mechanical stimuli
each semicircular ducts'...contain... cristae cells that monitor rotational acceleration
the hairs of these cells are anchored in an overlying gelatinous cupula
forces on the cupula, caused by..., (actions) in the.. rotational acceleration of the head...bend the hairs and initiate impulses...vestibular nerve
the coiled cochlea is divided into three parts (scalae) scala media, tympani and vestibuli
the scala media contains the...runs through the...of the cochlea organ of
the scala media is an enlogated portion of the membraneous labyrinth
the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani are parts of the bony labyrinth
sound vibrations are transmitted toward the tympanum
the auditory ossicles conduct vibrations to the...which vibrate the fluids in the...and then passed on to the... base of the stapes...choclea's vestibular duct...tympanic duct
the pressure waves distort the basilar membrane and spiral organ
in turn, the hairs of the receptor cells, whose tips are anchored in a...are.. nonmoving tectorial membrane...bent
bending of the hairs produces impulses in the cochlear nerve
impulses generated by along the..and the... equilibrium receptors...vestibular nerve...vestibular nuclei...cerebellum
these brain centers initiate responses that maintain balance
there is also a minor equilibrium pathway to the posterior insula of the cerebral cortex
impulses generated by along the... hearing receptors...cochlear nerve...cochlear nuclei in the medulla
hearing receptors sensory neurons for hearing located in the spiral ganglion of the cochlea
afferent fibers form the cochlear branch of CN VIII, synapsing at the cochlear nucleus
from there, auditory info passes the... several nuclei in the brain stem...medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and to the auditory cortex
motion sickness is brought on by particular movements, and causes nausea and vomiting
meniere's syndrome is an overstimulation of the hearing and equilibrium receptors caused by an excess of endolymph in the membraneous labyrinth
conduction deafness results from interference with the conduction of sound vibrations to the internal ear
sensorineural deafness reflects damage to auditory receptor cells or neural pathways
Created by: handrzej



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