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Ch10 A/P1

What are the types of Muscle Tissue? Skeletal (voluntary) or straited, cardiac muscle and smooth (involuntary) muscle
How many muscles are there in the body? 600+
Describe this property of Muscle Tissue: Chemical Stimuli Ex: Transmitters such as acetylcholine, hormones, or changes in pH
Describe this property of Muscle Tissue: Extensibility The ability of a muscle to stretch without being damaged
Describe this property of Muscle Tissue: Elasticity Ability of a muscle to return to its original length and shape after contraction or extension
Describe this property of Muscle Tissue: Contractility Ability of a muscle to contract forcefully when stimulated by an action potential
Describe this property of Muscle Tissue: Electrical Excitability Ability to respond to certain stimuli by producing an electrical signal (action potential)
Action potentials travel along the plasma membrane due to the presence of voltage-gated channels. There are two types of stimuli that trigger action potentials. Name and describe them. AutoRhymthic Electrical Signals-start in muscle tissue itself as in the heart beat (pacemaker) Chemical Stimuli-such as neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, hormones, or changes in pH
Define thermogenesis. The production of heat as a result of muscle contraction; heat used to maintain normal body temp.
These are ring like bands of smooth muscles that control the storage of substances and movement of them such as food, urine, blood, lymph, gametes Sphincters
Name three other systems that work with the Muscular System to keep the body functioning normally. Nervous (impulses) Respiratory (Cellular Respiration: oxygen/carbon dioxide exchange) Circulatory
Muscles that have opposing or opposite functions are called _. Give examples. Antagonistic muscles; biceps (flexes) and triceps (extends); flexion/extension; abduction/adduction.
ROM or Range of Motion exercises do what? Stretch and contract antagonistic muscles to preserve muscle function and joint mobility in bedridden or immobilized
These muscles ahve the same function or work together to perform a function. Synergistic
This is necessary to maintain good muscle tone and good health. Exercise
Name the two main types of exercise. Isotonic and Isometric
This type of exercise involves muscle contraction that brings movement. Examples are jogging, swimming, weightlifting, and walking. Improves cardiovascular and respiratory efficiency as well as muscle tone, strength and size Isotonic exercise
This type of exercise involves muscle contraction without movement as seen in bedridden patients or the elderly. This involves physical therapy. It increases muscle tone and strength. Isometric exercise
Name the outermost layer of CT encircling the entire muscle to prevent it from rupturing while working Epimysium
Name the layer or CT that surrounds, insulates, and separates individual muscle fibers/cells; nerves and blood vessels penetrate down to the muscle fiber/cell Endomysium
This layer of CT is wrapped around a single fascicle; separates the fascicles Perimysium
This is where motor neuron ends on a muscle fiber. Neuromuscular Junction
This is the space between the axon and sarcolemma on the muscle Synapse
This the enlarged tip of the motor neuron; contains sacs of acetycholine (ACh); expand into clusters called synaptic end bulbs at the NMJ Axon Terminal
This is a neurotransmitter; a chemical that moves an impulse (action potential) across a synapse Acetylcholine (ACh)
What is the plasma membrane that covers a muscle fiber/cell and contains receptor sites for ACh Sarcolemma
This neurotransmmitter inactivator inhibits the action of acetycholine. Name it. Acetylcholinesterase
These individual contracting unites within muscle fibers are arranged end to end in myofibrils; proteins called myosin and actin actually cause contraction of muscle fibers; microscopically, the area between two Z discs Sarcomeres
Thousands of tiny indentations along the sarcolemma that tunnel in from the surface toward the center of each muscle fiber/cell T-Tubules
This is the cytoplasm of the muscle fiber. What does it contain? Sarcoplasm; it contains myoglobin- a red colored protein that absorbs oxygen from interstitial fluid for energy production in mitochondria
These fluid filled sacs encircle each myofibril they are like the smooth ER found in cells. Each end is dilated and called the terminal cisternae (cisterns) and butt up against either side of a T-tibule Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
This makes up a triad. a T-tubule plus 2 terminal cisterns
T or F In a relaxed muscle fiber, the SR, specifically the terminal cisternae stores sodium ions. False- it stores Calcium Ions
What are Myofilaments? Muscle proteins appear as the dark and light bands in muscle fibers
Thick filaments are called _. Myosin
Think Filaments are called_. Actin
These protein strands cover the myosin-binding sites on actin. Tropomyosin
This protein that holds the tropomyosin strands in place Troponin
Name the three intramuscular injection sites: Gluteus Medius (Buttock) Vastus Lateralis (Lateral Thigh) Deltoid (Shoulder)
Sudden Involuntary Contraction of a Single muscle in a large group of muscles is called a _ Spasm
This rhythmic, involuntary purposeless contraction that produces a quivering or shaking movement is called a _. Tremor
This is known as a painful spasmodic contraction. Cramp
This is a spontaneous contraction of a single muscle fiber that is not visible under the skin but can be recorded by electromyography; can signal destruction of motor neurons Fibrillation
Spasmodic involuntary twitching made by muscles that are ordinarily under voluntary control is called _. Tic
Involuntary, brief twitch of an entire motor unit that's visible under the skin; occurs irregularly & not associated w/ movement of the affected muscle; occurs frequently in MS or ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease is known as _. Fasciculation
Created by: Bettiesailor



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