Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how


Clinical Medicine-II

In recessive and dominant PKD, where do the cysts evolve from R: renal collecting ducts, D: arise anywhere in the nephron
What is the MC inherited renal dz in infancy and childhood Autosomal recessive PKD
Where is the mutation for recessive defect on chromosome 6P 21
What is a common feature of recessive PKD infants have a problem w/ free water excretion leading to hyponatremia
What is the difference b/w autosomal dominant PKD and chronic KD PKD causes progressive kidney enlargement
Is this 100% genetic there are genes that code for this, but mutations are common that lead to PKD as well
What two factors of PKD would show slower progression PKD 2 and females
Why do PKD pts do so well on dialysis alone they can still excrete free water (urine), but have trouble filtering
Clinical features of PKD most are asymptomatic, pain once the kidneys get large, UTI’s and stones, Hematuria (50%), HTN (60%), intracerebral aneurysm
What can happen with these cysts? can get infected, must be drained
How do we dx PKD US, (CT and MRI not usually used, but MRI can detect change in kidney vol)
Tx for PKD none. Dialysis, and trxp. Control HTN and Lipids to prevent progression, tx pain
What is the worst thing a pt could do to worsen ANY kidney dz smoking
What is goal tx of BP with PKD 130/80 (low enough to not have hypotension sxs) must individualize care
What are some extra renal manifestations, and RFs w/ this liver cysts, RF: females exposed to estrogen: preggo, and oral contraceptives
Besides the liver cysts, what else can PKD precipitate cerebral aneurisms
What is rhabdomyolysis stressed skeletal muscle that releases its contents (creatnine kinase) of muscle into the extracellular fluid that could cause kidney damage
Where do we see rhabdo intense athletes (marathons), military, crush syndrome
Causes of Rhabdo physical trauma, ↑physical activity-szs, movement d/o’s, compromised flow to muscle→necrosis leads to release of CK, Drugs, Toxins, ↑↓temps, infectious causes and bites
What drugs may cause Rhabdo HMG co-A reductase inhibitors (statins)
Toxins that may cause rhabdo ethanol, CO, snake venom
Dx of rhabdo pink urine, ↑CK: >10-20,000, evidence of renal failure,
Tx of rhabdo maintain hydration, forced mannitol-alkaline diuresis (can use Lasix? But must be certain they are hydrated 1st)
What is mannitol a osmotic diuretic
25 yo runner running 50mile race, feeling fatigue, muscle pain, stops to urinate and has red urine, dx? rhabdomyolysis
Dx of urine that is red it is red, but has no blood cells, red d/t myoglobin
Pt goes into acute renal failure in ICU what is the mortality rate 40-90%!
3 major categories of acute renal injury pre-renal, intra-renal, post-renal (need to be able to tell the diff)
What are causes of pre-renal renal failure anything that may reduce renal perfusion: vol depletion, hypotension, CHF, arrhythmias,, intrarenal vasoconstriction? hypercalcemia, hepatorenal syndrome
What are some drugs that may ↑intrarenal vasoconstriction ACEi, NSAIDS, AmphoB, cyclosporine/tacrolimus, radiographic contrast
What are intrarenal failure causes any damage to the kidney parynchema, vascular, tubular, glomerular, interstitial damages
Is cortical and tubular necrosis reversible cortical: usually bilaterally do not recovery, tubular, can regetnerate tubules and kidney fxn returns
What is acute interstitial nephritis allergic rxn in the kidney. Eosinophils in urine and or blood, commonly d/t an abx (tx is prednisone and stopping offending agent)
Post renal causes Obstruction: prostatic hypertrophy, nerogenic bladder, intraureteral obstruction, extrauretral obstruction: tumors, retroperitoneal fibrosis
Any female that has bilateral obstruction of the kidneys has what a carcinoma until proven otherwise
Functionally, urine outpul tell that required to maintain solute balance Oliguric, <400ml/24hrs
Complete obstruction of urine, major vascular catastrophy, commonly severe ATN anuric <100ml/24hrs
When is oliguria seen more common w/ obstruction, prerenal azotemia
When is nonoliguric more common intrarenal causes, nephrotoxic ATN, acute GN, AIN
Dysgeusia altered taste sensation
Hiccups singultus
Signs of chronic dz pre-exisiting illness, uremic sx, small echogenic kidneys by US
What is a significant lab test for ARF FENA and BUN
What does a BUN/Creatinine ration >20/1 suggest prerenal or obstruction
Fxns of kidney ↑ calcium absorption: calcitriol, Stimulates RBC production, Regulates BP and electrolytes: renin
Classifications of acute renal failure sudden, rapid ↓ urine output, usually reversible, tubular cell death with regeneration
Classifications of chronic renalfaiure progressive, not reversible, nephron loss, can lose ~75% renal fxn prior to having sxs
What ↑ as kidney fxns ↓ uraemia
Stages of CDK Stage 1-5
Kidney damage w/ nl or ↑ GFR Stage 1 GFR >90
Severe ↓ GFR stage 4 15-29
Kidney failure stage 5, <15 or dialysis
Kidney damage w/ mild ↓ GFR stage 2, 60-89
Mod ↓ GFR stage 3, 30-59
Causes of CKD DM, HTN, GN, PKD, obstructions, infections
What may progress CKD sustaining primary dz, HTN, intraglomerular HTN, proteinuria, nephrocalcinosis, Dyslipidemia,
What should all CKD pts be on lipid lowering agent , and ACEi (if they can be) (statins: have a factor that help the kidney “deal” with CKD)
how can we slow pregoression of CKD control HTN, diet, anemia, ca++ and PO3, lipids, obesity, smoking
Sxs CKD often asymptomatic, lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, HTN/HF, unexplained anemia
Tx of metabolic acidosis oral Na+ bicarb
MC cause of renal failure DM
What are two types of dialysis hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis (thru abdomen)
Questions Not done :D
Created by: becker15
Popular Clinical Skills sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards