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Pompeii test 2

This is for Tulane...you probably won't find it very useful

Pontifices Term for Christian Bishops.
pontifex maximus High priest of the College of Pontiffs in Rome. Until 254 AD. Had status as the most important religious figure. The Pope.
Flamines A priest assigned to one of fifteen deities with official cults.
(Flamen Dialis High Priest of Jupiter
Flamen Martialis High Priest of Mars
Flamen Quirinalis High Priest of Quirinus
rex sacrorum The Flamines priest chosen by the pontifex maximus to be the leader of the all.
Vestal Virgins Chast priestesses of Vesta, goddess of the hearth
Augurs A basic priest
haruspex (pl. haruspices) A man trained to practice haruspicy – a study of entrails of sacrificed animals
Venus God of beauty/sex
Apollo God of light/sun
Hercules Demi-god known for his great strength
Bacchus God of wine, and ecstasy
Capitoline Triad Three dieties (Jupiter, Juno, Minerva) worshipped at Capitoline Hill
(Jupiter King of the god/ god of lighting and thunder
Juno Goddess of love, marriage, and fertility
Minerva Goddess of medicine, commerce, magic, wisdom, and other dumb shit
Augustus/Augusta First Emperor of the Roman Empire. Took rule in 27 BC. Declared a god after his death
divus / diva A vote for the deceased by the senate to turn him into a god
apotheosis The glorification of a subject to a divine level. Like Augustus did.
Heroon A shrine dedicated to a ancient Greek or Roman hero and used for cult worship.
Augustales Those who declared full respect and admiration to the Empire.
Lares Compitales Guardian spirits of the cross-roads. In 7 BC, Augustus had alters built for them in all 265 streets of Rome.
Augustaeum A temple or building dedicated to Emperor Augustus
Augustalium A specific building found in Pompeii dedicated to Augustus.
Funeral of Julius Caesar July 44 BC
Temple of Divus Julius built 29 BC
First cults of Augustus & Dea Roma established in Bithynia-Pontus 29 BC
Cult of Lares Augusti established at Rome 7 BC
Cult of the numen Augusti established at Rome AD 6 - It just kinda did
Death and deification of Augustus AD 14
First temple of Divus Augustus AD 15 at Tarraco in Spain
vicus (city ward) A small neighborhood in Rome. 265 existed. Each had an elected leader and a bit of power but not much. Also applied to small, unofficial towns which sprung up (mostly military camps).
vicani (residents of a ward) Someone who lived in a viscus.
compitum (-a) Crossroads. The section where two important Roman roads cross.
Lares Compitales Dieties of Roman religion. Kind of like Saints. Cult statues of women who were held inside at important places…like compitums and people’s homes.
Vicomagistri Each Viscus elected four local magistrate who ran the police and be involved in celebrations.
Forenses/Campaniense/salinienses/Urbulanenses…These are names of different groups within Pompeii. They all had different voting methods, showing that different viscus’ had different cultures and methods. Crossroads. The section where two important Roman roads cross.
Cistern Ancient tool used to collect rainwater. Basically a large box structure that caught it. Used in areas where water was sparse.
opus signinum A building material made of broken tile, mixed with mortar/lime and then beaten down into a solid material. Even pottery has been found in the construction.
Compluvium A hole in the roof of a big Roman building to let light/air in. Sloped downward to push rain away.
Impluvium A floor gutter system to wash away the rain that got through the compluvium.
Aqueduct A pipe or otherwise system to transfer water long distances to where it is needed.
specus (water channel in the aqueduct) the type of stone tunnel used to carry water in Roman
castellum aquae (water distribution tank) A holding spot in the aqueduct for water to collect before being released.
Standpipe A pushy pipe to pull water from an aqueduct. Kind of like an old school drinking fountain.
balneum (-a) A smaller scale bathing house that existed all throughout Rome.
therma (-ae) Large, imperial bath houses. The cool ones we should know.
apodyterium (dressing room), A giant changing room. Many different areas were available from here and there were places to sit.
palaestra (exercise grounds) Games, weights, and discus
piscina/natatio (swimming pool), Swimming pool
sudatorium (dry sauna), Swimming pool
caldarium (hot room) hot bath
tepidarium (warm room) warm bath
frigidarium (cold room) cold bath
hypocaust A heating system in which a furnace made heat and traveled through thin walls with holes in them so as to heat the bath house.
tubulus (-i) The type of walls used in the hypocaust
tegula mammata A type of angled roof that allowed hot and cold air to more easily travel in the bathhouse.
Forum Baths Called Forum bath because it was in the forums. Built in 80BC. Slaves and free men both used but the all had to pay for it.
Stabian Baths; Built in 5th century BC, before the Romans showed up. At the junction of Pompeiis two biggest streets. Largest of the three baths. Badly damaged in 62 AD
Central Baths ; Intersection of Via Stabiana and Via di Nola. Built after 62 AD as part of a massive Urban renewal. State of the art
Suburban Baths Public bath house built in 1st century BC. Notable for explicit sex art above lockers. Idea is that people remembered the sex scene to identify their lockers later. Also shows that erotic art not a big deal in Pompeii
Amphitheater Architecture
Cavea Two things, where the animals were kept before entering the arena, and also the seating system where people sat based on their place in a social higherarchy.
Arena Place where people fought and shit.
Podium The seat of honor in an arena. Usually reserved for the emperor.
Hypogeum Underground temple of tomb. Usually reserved for bishops-saints.
Velarium A type of curtain awning hanging above the arena which protected spectators from harsh elements.
munera (gladiatorial events) A work of obligation or duty. The most famous was gladiator contests which was a service or gift to the dead.
venationes (staged hunts) Rome would bring in wild animals for dudes to fight. Lions were most popular. Used to showcase the great power of Rome because they could get wild animals from other countries and continents.
naumachiae (staged naval battles) A sorta fake battle where slaves and POW would recreate naval battles,
ludi (gladiatorial schools) Schools/ barracks or prisons for those waiting to fight. Over 100 schools throughout the empire.
lanista (owner of a gladiatorial company)
Samnite heavily armed man with helmet, large shield, short sword and high greave on left leg
Secutor similar to the Samnite and seems to have replaced it by the imperial period
Murmillo “fish-like” crested helmet with visor, short greaves, sword, rectangular shield
Retiarius net and trident, arm-guard, bronze plate on shoulder to protect head
quinquennial duovirs A family in 25-26 AD, well known for their prominence throughout Pompeii’s history
M. Porcius 95BC-46BC)
Stadium …you know
Pentathlon A five event competition invented in ancient Greek. First had Long Jum, Javelin, Discus, and a foot-race
Pugilatus (boxing);
Luctatio (wrestling);
Pancration (free-style fighting);
Actia A celebration of Apollo. Also a celebration of Augustus celebrating his victory over Mark Antony in 31 BC.
Sebasta A rival to the Olympics, instituted in 2 AD by Augustus in honor of him. Consited of games, and well and sing and dance competitions.
Neronia Festival created by Nero in 60 and 65 AD. Events were music, oratory, poetry. And then gymnastic, and then riding. Nero was a faggot.
Capitolinia A Roman statue from 2nd AD. One of the best preserved.
Iuvenes Name for the youth of Rome (17-35)
Rome Stadium of Domitian
Large Palaestra A sports center/cult hangout for youth of Rome who wished to find each other, and have a place to discuss differenting political opinions
Moretum A type of herb cheese Romans ate with bread
Garum Popular fermented fish sauce
Mulsum Chilled with honey
dining space triclinium
lectus imus Far side of the chair, where host and his family sat. The lowest ranking people
lectus medius Middle of chair, actually the best place to sit. Where the guest of honor was.
lectus summus First three sitters. The less important guests (B>A>C)
ientaculum (breakfast) Usually just a piece of bread
prandium (lunch),
cena (dinner)
courses of a dinner gustatio/gustum
prima mensa First course (veggies and meat)
secunda mensa Desert
popina Lower class bar. Shit food and varying wine. Scatchy shit went down here.
Caupona Upper class food/wine place.
Caecuban 70 AD. Considered the best wine in the world.
Falernian Popular wine at 30 proof. 37BC – 200AD+
Apicius (4th / 5th century AD cookbook author) He made a cookbook, alright. It has food in it and is surprisingly similar to modern cook books.
Isis goddess; worshipped as ideal mother as well as matron of nature and magic; considered friend of the downtrodden; mother of Horus; sister/wife of Osiris;
Osiris God of the afterlife and the dead; brother/husband of Isis; father of Horus; associted with vegetation and flooding
Horus son of Isis and Osiris; falcon-headed; associated with sky/hunting/war;
Set God of desert/storms/foreigners/darkness/chaos; usurper who killed own brother, Osiris; at battle with Horus after murder of Osiris (their conflict is a popular theme)
Sistrum musical instrument in percussion family; played by skaking small rings to produce clanking noise; religious, shaken to frighten away Set and keep Nile River at bay; Isis often pictured holding sistrum
Navigum Isidis annual fesival honoring Isis; may share origins with modern Carnival; outlives Christian Persecution in Roman Empire until post-Pompeii
Iseia uhhhhh
Apertio means “an opening” in Latin
Laudatio means “praise or commendation” in Latin; “Laudatio Turiae” is a tombstone engraving with an epitaph from husband to wife (dates to 1st century BC, pieces found throughout Rome)
Imagines images of ancestors displayed in the atrium of noble Romans; The images were arranged with a label summarizing the individual's offices held and accomplishments
Collegium meaning “joined by law,” refers to any association with a legal personality (guilds, social clubs, funery societies)
Cena Novendialis feast eaten 9 days after a funeral;
Di Manes Roman deities of the underworld sometimes thought to represent deceased loved ones; honored during Parentalia
Parentalia 9-day fesival held in Feb (15-21) honoring family ancestors; official holiday though celebrated domestically with family; involves prayers, special offerings; no official business done during period
Lemuria a feast in the Ancient Rome during which the Romans performed rites to exorcise the malevolent and fearful ghosts of the dead from their homes; may 9, 11, 13; instituted by Romulus (myth); made May unlucky month for marriage
Hospitium concept of hospitality as a divine right of the guest and a divine duty of the host
Caupona places intended for the consumption of food; many found in Pompeii on busy streets;
Stabulum place where travelers could find shelter for themselves and their horses (sort of an ancient Roman motel? IDK);
Tabernae (thermopolium) A single room shop covered by a barrell vault within great indoor markets of ancient Rome; each taberna had a window above it to let light into a wooden attic for storage and had a wide doorway; a “retail unit" within the Roman Empire where many economic
Popina Ancient Roman wine bar where a limited menu of simple foods (olives, bread, stews) and selection of wines of varying quality were available; a place for plebians of the lower classes of Roman society (slaves, freedmen, foreigners) to socialise and in Roma
Dolium (pl. Dolia) is a large earthenware vase or container used in ancient Rome for storage or transportation of goods; made of clay; lined with pitch or wax
Triclinium formal dining room on Roman dwelling; included reclining couches where guests sat and were often served by slaves; common in wealthy homes
Lupanar most famous brothel in Pompeii; known for its erotic wall paintings; “lupanar” simply means brothel (Lupanar of Pompeii is famous one); approximately two blocks east of the forum at the intersection of Vico del Lupanare and Vico del Balcone Pensile.
Cella Meretricia room for a prostitute? All I could find.Fabula palliata
Fabula togata type of Roman comedy to do with dressing like the Greeks; literally means “toga-clad-stories”
Fabula praetexta genre of Roman tragedy; dealt with the themes of historical Roman figures
Ludi scaenici theater of ancient Rome; ranging from festival performances of street theater, nude dancing, and acrobatics, to the staging of comedies, to the high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies of Seneca.
Theater (scanea, cavea, valva regia) “scanea” refers to scenary in theater, often a large, decorated wall behind the stage; “cavea” refers to where spectators sat in theater based on social class; “valva regia” was cenral door located in scanea wall
Atellana kind of comedy in Roman theater, sometimes involving improv and use of masks; included “stock characters” of the Clown, the Simpleton, the Old Fool, the Hunchback, and the Glutton
Mimus musical-comedy genre or theater; different in that it was performed without masks, which allowed women to earn a living as professional entertainers
Odeum small building in ancient Rome used for performances of music or poetry
Ludi (Romani, Megalenses, Apollinares, Plebeii, Ceriales) “Ludi” were public games held for the benefit and entertainment of the Roman people; held in conjunction with Roman religious festivals;
Romani September 4–19 in 44 BC, September 12–15 in the 4th century AD, established according to some legends in the 6th century BC in honor of Jupiter, and at first held occasionally, not annually.
Megalenses April 4–10, established 204 BC in honor of the Magna Mater in conjunction with the Megalenesia
Apollinares July 6–13, first celebrated in 211 BC in honor of Apollo to secure his aid against Hannibal, and made annual in 208 BC by decree.
Plebeii originally November 13, on the Ides of Jupiter, and expanded to run November 4–17; established 216 BC and held in the Circus,
Ceriales April 12–19, established 202 BC in conjunction with the Cerealia April 12
Theatrum Maius I think this means “large theater”
Theatrum Tectum and I think this means “small theater”
Plautus Roman playwright in the Old Latin period; his comedies are the earliest surviving intact works in Latin literature; he wrote Palliata comoedia, the genre devised by the innovator of Latin literature, Livius Andronicus
Terence playwirght of the Roman republic; N. African descent; slave freed by his master, a senator; wrote comedies; famous quote “I am a man, I consider nothing that is human alien to me." Vestibulum
Fauces an architectural term given for a narrow passages on either side of the tablinum, through which access could be obtained from the atrium to the peristylar court in the rear.
Atrium the open central court from which the enclosed rooms led off
Testudinatum this atrium had no opening in the roof at all and was only seen in small, unimportant houses
Tetrastyle this type had one column at each corner of the impluvium
Tuscanic this type had no columns. The weight of the ceiling was carried by the rafters. though expensive to build, this seems to have been the most widespread type of atrium in the Roman house.
Corinthian this type was similar to the atrium tetrastylum but had a greater opening in the roof and a greater number of columns.
Displuviate the roof actually sloped towards the side walls, a large rainwater therefore ran off into other outlets than the impluvium.
Impluvium shallow pool sunk into the floor to catch the rainwater; the opening in the ceiling above the pool called for some means of support for the roof
Compluvium central opening in the roof of the atrium that let in light and air
Tablinum was the large reception room of the house; situated between the atrium and the peristylium; generally had no wall separating it from the atrium at all and little if any walls dividing it from the peristylium. It was only separated from the atrium by a cur
Ala (pl. Alae) the open rooms on each side of the atrium; originally built to let in light, but with advent of the compluvium, these became obsolete; incorporated into houses based on tradition rather than function
Triclinium the Roman dining room; with the introduction of the Greek practice of reclining when eating, the triclinium was set aside as a room especially for dining in; in many houses once would find several triclinia, rooms designated as dining areas, allowing the
Cubiculum the bedroom of the Roman house; o the Romans these rooms were apparently of less importance than the other rooms of the house; the ceilings were vaulted and lower above the bed, often making the room appear a cramped and stuffy place
Hortus small garden often near the back of the atrium
Peristyle the garden of the house; it was incorporated into the house itself and was usually surrounded by columns supporting the roof; n it were grown herbs and flowers, particularly roses, violets and lilies it appears; small statues and statuettes and other orna
Taberna (pl. Tabernae) a room in the Roman house which surrounded the atrium, but which had its own entrance from the outside and didn't lead into the interior of the house; these little rooms hence could be used as shops; usually there was a brick counter to display goods by t
Materfamilias appears to be same as above, but with a woman
Imagines Maiorum portraits of ones ancestors displayed in the home; meant to ensure family is remembered
Lectus Adversus a symbol of the sanctity of marriage (the bride was splaced upon it by the groom as part of the marriage ceremony); served only symbolic use.
Symposium (Greek) a drinking party; a forum for men of good family to debate, plot, boast, or simply to revel with others. They were frequently held to celebrate the introduction of young men into aristocratic society. Symposia were also held by aristocrats to celebrate ot
Convivium according to wiki, the “equivilent to symposium” in Roman society
Artifact Assemblage an archaeological term meaning a group of different artifacts found in association with one another; an assemblage is a "group of artifacts recurring together at a particular time and place, and representing the sum of human activities."
Created by: 1145850608