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Anatomy 1

Overview/Directional Terms

Science of structure Anatomy
Science of Body functions Physiology
Atomic and molecular level Chemical level
Smallest living unit of the body Cellular level
Group of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together on one task Tissue level
epithelium, muscle, connective tissue, and nerve 4 basic tissue types
grouping of 2 or more tissue types into a recognizeable structure with a specific function Organ level
collection of related organs with a common function Organ system
one living individual Organismic level
sum of all chemical processes (breakdown of large molecules into small/providing chemical energy for cells Metabolism
detect and respond to changes in internal or external environment/musicle contraction, electrical signals, hormone or glandular secretion Responsiveness
the body, an organ, a cell or cell component Movement at any structural level
increase in number of size of cells or teh material found between cells growth
specialization of cells for a specific function differentiation
formation of new cells or new individuals reproduction
postmortem examination of body dissection/confirm or determine cause of death/support findings of other tests/provide information on effects of drug usage/educate healthcare students/reveal congenital defects Autopsy
maintaining the internal evnironment within physiological limits/example: blood glucose level is kept within narrow range 70-110/100ml definition of Homeostatis
Nervous system and endocrine system maintain ____ in the body Homeostatis
Standing upright/facing the observer, head level/eyes facing forward/feet flat on the floor/arms at the sides/palms turned forward Anatomical position
Divides teh body or an organ into left and right sides Sagittal plane
Produces equal halves Midsagittal plane
produces unequal halves Parasagittal plane
Divides the body or an organ into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions Frontal/Coronal plane
Divides the body or an organ into upper (superior ) or lower (inferior) portions Transverse (cross-sectional) or horizontal plane
some combination of 2 other planes oblique plane
Towards the head (direction) Superior
away from the head (direction) inferior
At the back of the body Dorsal/Posterior
At the front of the body Ventral or Anterior
Nearer to the midline of the body Medial
Farther from the midline of the body Lateral
Nearer to the attachment of the limb to the trunk Proximal
Farther fromt eh attachment of the limb to the trunk Distal
Has the cranial cavity and vertebral canal Dorsal Body Cavity
Holds the brain/formed by the skull Cranial cavity
Contains the spinal cord/formed by vertebral column Vertebral canal
Has the thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity Ventral Body Cavity
inferior portion of ventral body cavity below diaphragm/Encircled by abdominal wall, bones and muscles of pelvis Abdominal pelvic cavity
Encircled by ribs, sternum, vertebral column and muscle/Divided into 2 pleural cavities by mediastinum/Mediastinum contains all ______ organs except lungs Thoracic Cavity
Allows visualization of structures without surgery Medical Imaging
A single burst of xrays/Produces 2-D image on film/poor resolution of soft tissues/major use is osteology Conventional Radiography
moving xray beam/image produced on a video monitor of cross section through body/Multiple scans used to build 3D views Computed tomography (CT scan)
Radiopaque material injected into blood vessels/Before and after images compared with a computer program Digital subtraction angiography
High frequency sound waves emitted by hand-held device/Safe, noninvasive and painless/image or sonogram is displayed on video monitor Ultrasound (US)
Body exposed to high energy magnetic field/protons align themselves relative to magnetic field/pulse of radiowaves used to generate an image on video monitor/can not use on patient with metal in their body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Substance that emits postively charged particles is injected into body/collision with negatively charged electrons in tissues releases gamma rays Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Head/Neck/thorax/Abdominopelvic/upper limg/lower limb Regions of the body (anterior)
Frontal/Temporal/Orbital/Nasal/Buccal/Oral/Mandibular Parts of the Head
Anterior Cervical/Lateral Cervical/Supraclavicular Parts of the Neck
Pectoral Part of the Chest
Abdominal/Inguinal/Pelvic/Pubic/Genital/Pudenal/Perineal Parts of the Amdominopelvic area
Deltoid/Axillary/Brachial/Antecubital/Antebrachial/Hand: Palmar/Hand: Digital Parts of the Upper Limb
Coxal/Femoral/Patellar/Crural/Fibular/Tarsal/Foot: Dorsum/Foot: Digital Parts of the Lower Limb
Head/Neck/Back/Upper Limb/Lower Limb Regions of teh Body (posterior)
Parietal/Occipital Parts of the Head
Post cervial/Nuchal Part of the Neck
Right Hypochondriac Region Upper Right Region
Epigastric Region Upper middle region
left hypochondriac region upper left region
right lumbar region middle right region
umbilical region middle region
left lumbar region middle left region
right iliac (inguinal) region lower right region
Hypogastric (pubic) region lower middle region
left iliac (inguinal) region lower left region
Created by: calebmo