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HA Ch. 15 (16)

The Nervous System IV: The Autonomic Division of the Nervous System

The ANS is the general visceral motor division of the PNS
The ANS is the system of motor neurons that innervates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
the ANS regulates...and coordinates... body temp...cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory and reproductive functions
fundamentally, the ANS operates at the subconscious level to accomplish routine physiological modifications to the organ systems
the ANS performs processes that maintain homeostasis
the ANS and SNS have afferent and efferent neurons
the ANS and SNS differ in receptor and effector organ location
in the somatic motor division of the nervous system, a single lower motor neuron forms the pathway from the CNS to contact and exert direct control over skeletal muscles
in the ANS, afferent pathways originate in visceral receptors, and efferent pathways connect to visceral effector organs
the ANS and SNS also differ in the arrangement of the neurons connecting the CNS to the effector organs
autonomic motor pathways consist of chains of two neurons
the PREganglionic neuron a visceral motor neuron whose cell body is in the CNS
the preganglionic neuron sends its axons, preganglionic fibers..synapse on the ganglionic neuron
the ganglionic neuron is a nueron whose cell body is in an autonomic ganglion which sends its axons, called POSTganglionic fibers to peripheral tissues and organs such as cardiac and smooth muscles, adipose tissue and glands
the postganglionic fibers of ganglionic neurons carry impulses away from the ganglion
the postganglionic fibers cell bodies are within ganglia
the ANS has parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions
the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions both innervate many of the same organs but produce opposite effects
the parasympathetic division is active during the rest and digest mode
the parasympathetic division is craniosacral and has comparatively long preganglionic axons
the long preganglionic axons of the parasympathetic divions synapse on neurons of terminal ganglia or neurons of intramural ganglia
the sympathetic division prepares the body for the fight or flight mode
the sympathetic division is thoracolumbar and has compararitevly long postganglionic axons
the two divisions differ in the ...they release at the... neurotransmitter...effector organ
all preganglionic terminals release ACh and are stimulatory
plasmalemma receptors in the preganglionic terminals determine whether the response will be stimulatory or inhibitory
acetylcholine is released by all parasympathetic postganglionic fibers and may be stimulatory or inhibitory
norepinephrine is released by most sympathetic postganglionic fibers, effects are usually stimulatory
the parasympathetic division consists of preganglionic neurons in the brain stem and in the lateral portion of the anterior gray horns of S2-S4
the preganglionic neuron's fibers leave the brain in CN III, VII, IX and X
preganglionic fibers in ... of the parasympathetic division innervate...and they synapse in the CN III, VII, and IX...visceral structures in the head ... ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia
short postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic division then connect to their peripheral target organs or tissues
preganglionic fibers in ...of the parasympathetic division synapse in... CN X...intramural ganglia within structures in the thoracic cavity and in the abdominopelvic cavity
the vagus nerve provides roughly 75% of all parasympathetic outflow
the sacral outflow does NOT join the ventral rami of the spinal nerves in the parasympathetic division
the preganglionic fibers of the sacral outflow of the parasympathetic division form distinct pelvic nerves
the distinct pelvic nerves innervate intramural ganglia in the kidney and urinary bladder, the terminal portions of the large intestine and the sex organs
preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic division release ACh and stimulate ganglionic neurons
all postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic division release ACh at neuroeffector junctions
major parasympathetic effects center on relaxation, food processing, and energy absorption
general functions of the parasympathetic division include pupil restriction, hormone secretion for nutrient absorption, increased digestive tract activity, defecation activities
general functions of the parasympathetic division also includes urinary bladder contraction, respiratory passageway constriction, decreased heart rate and sexual arousal
the parasympathetic division performs...including the digestive gland secretion....salivary glands, gastric glands, duodenal and other intestinal glands, the pancreas and the liver
all parasympathetic neurons are cholinergic
all parasympathetic preganglionic and postganglionic fibers release ACh at synapses and neuroeffector junctions
effects of neurotransmitter release in the parasympathetic division are short lived bec of the actions of enzymes at the postsynaptic plasmalemma and in the usrrounding tissues
two different types of ACh receptors in the postsynaptic plasmalemmae of the parasympathetic division include nicotinic and muscarinic
nicotinic receptors are located on ganglionic cells of both division of the ANS and at neuromuscular synapses
exposre to ACh causes nicotinic excitation by opening plasmalemmae channels
muscarinic receptors are located at neuroeffector junctions in the parasympathetic division and those cholinergic neuroeffector junctions in the sympathetic division
stiumulation of muscarinic receptors produces a longer-lasting effect than does stimulation of nicotinic receptors
cranial parasympathetic fibers arise in the brain stem of CN III, VII, IX, AND X
cranial parasympathetic fibers synapse in ganglia in the head, thorax, and abdomen
cranial outflow fibers in CN VII serve the submandibular, sublingual, lacrimal, and nasal glands
fibers in CN VII synapse in the submandibular and pterygopalatine ganglia
cranial outflow fibers in CN IX serve the parotid gland and synapse in the otic ganglion
parasympathetic fibers in the vagus nerve innervate organs in the thorax and most of the abdomen, including the heart, lungs, esophagus, stomach, liver and most of the intestines
fibers in the vagus nerve of cranial outflow are preganglionic
almost all ganglionic neurons of cranial outflow are located in intramural ganglia within the organ walls
sacral outflow; sacral parasympathetic pathways innervate the pelvic viscera
the preganglionic fibers of sacral outflow exit from the visceral motor region of the gray matter of the spinal cord
preganglionic fibers of the sacral outflow form the pelvic splanchnic nerves
most of these fibers (sacral outflow) synapse in intramural ganglia in the kidney, bladder, latter portions of the large intestine and sex organs
visceral motor nuclei of the parasympathetic division are associated with CN III, VII, IX, AND X and with sacral segments S2-S4
ganglionic neurons of parasympathetic division are located in terminal or intramural ganglia near or within target organs
parasympathetic fibers innervate areas controlled by cranial nerves and organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
all parasympathetic neurons are cholingeric
parasympathetic effects are usually short-lived and restricted to specific target areas
the sympathetic division consits of preganglionic neurons between T1 and L2
sympathetic division consists of ganglionic neurons in sympathetic chain ganglia and collateral ganglia
chain ganglia innervate effectors in the body wall, head and neck, limbs, and inside the thoracic cavity
collateral ganglia innervate effectors in the abdominopelvic cavity
sympathetic division has specialized neurons within the suprarenal glands
the preganglionic sympathetic cell bodies of the sympathetic division are in the lateral horn of the spinal gray matter from the level of T1 to L2
the sympathetic division supplies some peripheral structures that the parasympathetic division doesn't
peripheral structures supplied by the sympathetic division include arrector pili, sweat glands, and the smooth muscle of blood vessels
sympathetic ganglia include...pairs of... 22-24...sympathetic trunk ganglia and one unpaired collateral ganglia
trunk ganglia are also called chain ganglia and paravertebral ganglia
trunk ganglia are linked together to form sympathetic trunks on both sides of the vertebral column
collateral ganglia are also called prevertebral ganglia
collateral ganglia lie on the aorta in the abdomen, located anterior to the vertebral column
preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic division are...and release...and stimulate... cholinergic...ACh (excitatory)...ganglionic neurons
most postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic division release NE at neuroeffector junctions, causing a fight or flight response
sympathetic chain ganglia; every preganglionic sympathetic fiber leaves the lateral gray horn of the thoracolumbar spinal cord through a ventral root and spinal nerve
from there, sympathetic preganglionic fiber run in a white ramus communicans (myelinated) to a sympathetic trunk ganglion or collateral ganglion
preganglionic sympathetic fibers synapse with the ganglionic neuron that extends to the visceral effector
many preganglionic axons ascend or descend in the sympathetic trunk to synapse in a ganglion at another body level
in each sympathetic chain, there are 3 cervical, 11-12 thoracic, 2-5 lumbar and 4-5 sacral ganglia and 1 coccygeal sympathetic ganglion
every spinal nerve of the sympathetic division has a gray ramus that carries sympathetic postganglionic fibers
only thoracic and superior lumbar ganglia of the sympathetic division recieve preganglionic fibers via white rami
the cervical, inferior lumbar, and sacral chain ganglia of sympathetic division receive preganglionic innervation from collateral fibers of sympathetic division
every spinal nerve of the sympathetic division receives a gray ramus from a ganglion of the sympathetic chain
in the sympathetic pathway to the body periphery the preganglionic fibers synapse in the...and the postganglionic fibers run the... sympathetic trunk ganglia...gray rami communicantes...dorsal and ventral rami of the spinal nerves for peripheral distribution
in the sympathetic pathway to the head preganglionic fibers synapse in the... superior cervical ganglion
sympathetic pathway to the head; from there, most postganglionic fibers associated with a large artery that distributes them to the glands and smooth musculature of the head
in the sympathetic pathway to thoracic organs most preganglionic fibers synapse in the...and the postganglionic fibers run nearest s sympathetic trunk ganglion...directly to the organs (lungs and esophagus)
many post ganglionic fibers of the sympathetic division go to the...however..descend from the... heart...cervical ganglia in the neck
in the sympathetic pathway to the abdominal organs, preganglionic fibers run synapse in splanchnic nerves (greater, lesser, lumbar, and sacral) ...collateral ganglia on the aorta
from these ganglia(preganglionic fibers of collateral ganglia), the postganglionic fibers follow large arteries to the abdominal viscera (stomach, liver, kidney, and most of the large intestine
in the sympathetic pathway to pelvic organs, the preganglionic fibers synapse in sympathetic trunk ganglia or in collateral ganglia on the aorta, sacrum, and pelvic floor
postganglionic fibers of collateral ganglia travel through the most inferior autonomic plexuses to the pelvic organs
the splanchnic nerves of the sympathetic division innervate the hypogastric plexus and three collateral ganglia
the celiac ganglion of the splanchnic nerves innervate the stomach, liver, pancreas, and spleen
the superior mesenteric ganglion of the splechnic nerves innervate the small intestine and initial segments of the large intestine
the inferior mesenteric ganglion of the splechnic nerves innervate the kidney, bladder, sex organs and terminal segments of the large intestine
the adrenal glands of the adrenal medulla in the sympathetic division individually located superior to each kidney
the adrenal glands contain a medulla of modified post ganglionic sympathetic neurons
medulla of postganglionic sympathetic neurons secrete the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood
adrenal medulla secretions result in teh surge of adrenaline felt during excitement
some preganglionic fibers of the adrenal medulla do NOT synapse as they pass through both the sympathetic chain ganglia and collateral ganglia
the preganglionic fibers of the adrenal medulla that don't synapse enter one of the suprarenal glands instead and synapse on modified neurons within the suprarenal medulla
the cells of the adrenal medulla are innervated by preganglionic sympathetic neurons
preganglionic sympathetic fibers of adrenal medulla signal the secretion of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine into the ciruculation which causes prolonged sympathetic innervation effect
there are 2 classes of sympathetic receptors which are stimulated by NE and E are alpha receptors and beta receptors
alpha receptors respond to stimulation by depolarizing the plasmalemma
beta receptors respond to stimulation by changing the metabolic activity of the cells
most postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic division are adrenergic (release NE) but a few are cholinergic
postganglionic fibers of sympathetic division innervate sweat glands of the skin and blood vessels to skeletal muscles are cholinergic
the sympathetic division consists of ...segmentally arranged...that the vertebral column 2...sympathetic chains...lateral
the sympathetic division also contains...that the vertebral column 3 collateral ganglia..anterior
lastly, the sympathetic division contains 2 suprarenal medullae
preganglionic fibers of sympathetic division are relatively short except for those of the suprarenal medulla
postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic division are quite long
...typically occurs in the sympathetic division extensive divergence
a single preganglionic fiber of the sympathetic divison synapses with many ganglionic neurons in different ganglia
all preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic division are cholinergic
most postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic division are adrenergic
effetor response of the sympathetic division depends on the nature and activity of the receptor
in a crisis...occurs, in which the... sympathetic activation...entire sympathetic divison responds
the effects of the sympathetic division include increased alertness, a feeling of energy and euphoria, increased cardio and respiratory activity, general elevation in muscle tone and mobilization of energy reserves
organs with dual innervation receive insrtuctions from both the parasympathetic and sympathetic division of the ANS
nerves from both division intermingle to form nerve plexuses
dual innervation plexuses include cardiac, pulmonary, esophageal, celiac, inferior mesenteric and hypogastric
visceral motor functions of the ANS are influenced by the medulla oblongata, periaqueductal gray matter, spinal visceral reflexes, hypothalamus and amygdala and cerebral cortex
visceral reflexes of ANS are the...and provide...that can simplest functions of the ANS...automatic motor responses...modified, facilitated, or inhibited...higer centers, especially in the hypothalamus
higher brain centers in the posterior and lateral hypthalamus are involved in coordination and regulation of sympathetic division
portions of the anterior and medial hypothalamus are involved in the control of parasympathetic functioning
some people can voluntarily regulate some autonomic activities by gaining extraordinary control over their emotions
Created by: handrzej



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