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Med Neuro Lect7

Med Neuro Lect7 Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nerves

What key foramen is located/created above/by the pedicles? Intervertebral Foramina
How is the epidural space in the spinal column different from that in the skull? It contains Fat and a Venous Plexus!!
What are the Processes associated with the vertebral Lamina? 1.Superior Articular Process. 2.Inferior Articular Process. 3.Transverse Process. 4.Spinous Process.
Zygapophyseal Joint formed b/w the sup & inf articular processes. **also called facets.
3 Longitudinal Ligaments in the spinal column and their main actions/resistance 1.Ligamentum Flavum (considered longitudinal even though it is interrupted by lamina): provides resistance during FLEXION. 2.Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (not musch resistance). 3.Anterior Longitudinal Ligament: provides resistance during EXTENSION.
Does the Ligamentum Flavum buckle during extension since it is stretched so much during flexion? NO, contains high concentration of elastic fibers allowing it to SHRINK during extension
What are the 3 main causes of spinal nerve compression within the intervertebral foramina (Dorsal Root Ganglia particularly vulnerable)? 1.IV Disc bulge/herniation. 2.Osteophyte on edge of vertebrae. 3.Swelling/hypertrophy in joint capsule.
What is the main way to distinguish Anterior Vs Posterior spinal cord? How can it be used to distinguish Ant Vs Post rootlets? The Anterior Spinal Artery runs down along the spinal cord. If it is identified: 1.rootlets ANTERIOR to denticulate lig are Ant rootlets. 2.rootlets running POSTERIOR to denticulate lig are Post rootlets. **Vica Versa if posterior view.
What is responsible for stabilizing the spinal cord within the spinal canal? DURA. **Denticulate ligaments extend from Pia to Dura to stabilize the cord within the DURAL SAC.
Where does the Dural sac end? Where does the spinal cord end? S2. L1.
What do the rootlets enter as they pass through the dura to leave the spinal column? What does that dura then become? Lateral Recesses. After the intervertebral foramina, the dura turns into the EPINEURIUM.
What Key structure does the needle pass through within the spinal column during an epidural injection? Ligamentum Flavum.
Where is the CSF contained within the spinal column? Subarachnoid space, just like the brain.
What structures would most likely impinge the dorsal root ganglia? Intervertebral foramina. **Vertebral artery could in cervical vertebrae
Which is larger, dorsal or ventral ramus? Ventral Ramus is larger. **Dorsal and Ventral rootlets pass through lateral recesses together, then encounter the Dorsal Root Ganglia, then divide out.
Compare and contrast the anatomy of the spinal cord in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions and relate these morphological features to functional issues 1.Cervical: THICK (cervical enlargement) due to Inc sensory and motor neurons for the upper extremity. 2.Thoracic: THIN b/c less sensory & motor for Torso. 3.LumboSacral: THICK b/c lots of motor and senory neurons for lower extremity.
Explain the orientation of rootlets in the cervical spine Vs thoracic,lumbar, and spine spine? Why is this? 1.Cervical: Rootlets are horizontal. 2.Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral: Rootlets are vertical. **This is because the spinal cord developes slower that spinal canal: Causes rootlets to stretch out more as you go down the cord.
What spinal segements would you find in the Conus Medullaris? What type of damage would affect the Conus Medullaris? What symptoms would result? Conus Medullaris is located at vertebral level T12 and constains spinal segements S2-S4. **Trauma at level T12 would damage it and cause both bladder and bowel control problems.
At what level would a Lumbar Puncture be done? Vertebral level L2. **Cauda Equina wont be damaged when you enter subarachnoid space here to remove the CSF.
What is the extension of dura running from L1-S2 to anchor the dural sac to the sacrum? Filum Terminale
Describe the difference in spinal nerve exits seen in the spinal cord 1.C1-C7 pass out above the equivalent transverse process. 2.C8: transition level. 3.T1-S5 pass out below equivalent transverse process.
When will you see plexuses formed from spinal nerves? At extremities. **Brachial and Lumbosacral
What do the Dorsal Rami innervate? Ventral Rami? DORSAL: Epaxial muscles (everything within the angle of the scapula developing posterior to transverse processes). VENTRAL:Hypaxial muscles (everything developing anterior to transverse processes). **Ventral will wrap back around to join Dorsal
Do Cutaneous nerves follow along with dermatomes? Why or Why not? NO. They contain innervation for multiple dermatomes b/c they cross through a PLEXUS. **they have mixed nerves so will contribute to multiple dermatomes.
What is one important function of the Plexi seen at upper and lower extremities? Allows the dermatomes to be maintained by different peripheral nerves.
Created by: WeeG
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