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Cold War - Terms

General Assembly one agency of the United Nations (UN); all member states have votes no matter the size (like US Senate)
Security Council one agency of the UN; main goal was to preserve peace; constited of 5 Great Powers (US, USSR, GB, Fr, China) and 10 rotating members (2 year terms)
Secretary General the head of the Secretariat of the UN; spokesperson and leader
Third World developing countries, mostly fromer colonial countries
Baruch Plan US proposal to regulate atomic evergy; everyone knows about atomic bomb and formual; obviously doesnt happen
containment Truman and advisors became convinced that soviets were embarking on a world-wide communist mission; 'out job to stop and contain it'
Truman Doctrine US decides 'to assist free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities/outside pressures'; aka stop communism throughout world
Marshal Plan hasten European economic recovery and hense check communist expansion; for all Euro countries (soviets no we wont let east)
Berlin Airlift Soviet forces blocked western side of Berlin by ground; if west abandoned Berlin, lose authority in Europe; shipped supplys /food to Berlin for 1 year
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization; affirmed American determination to not abandon Europe; based on airpower
Warsaw Pact USSR coordinated the existing network of military alliances; added to militarty power/ nuclear research
Marshal Tito leader of Yugoslavia; defied Moscow, but communist
The Gulag Archipelago book by Solzhenitsyn; based on Soviet forced labor and concentration camp system
Korean War North (communist korenas) opened surprising over night attack on South Korea; US jumped into military action; ended in stalemate at 38th parallel; viewed as US win at containment
Wirstschoftswunder 'economic miracle' in Germany; by 1950, economy of Germnay was exceeding pre-war production; by 1958, leading industrial European country; thanks to Marshall Plan
Charles de Gaulle elected emergency premier for 6 months and given the right to write a new constitution; thought would keep Algeria french, but gave it and other colonies independent; created Fifth Republic
Fourth Republic set up after WWII; very unstable; presidency only ceremonial; all-powerful National Assembly led by premier; brought down by trying to preserve colonies (specifically Alegeria)
Fifth Republic presedency became fulcrum of power - final authority in military, foreign affairs, could dissolve National Assembly, use emergency powers, etc; premier -> prime minister
Nuremburg Trials international trial to convict high ranking Nazi oficials of crimes against peace and humanity; appropriatness?, but reinforced international standards of civilized behavior
denazification difficult to exclude Nazis from public life (often technically trained and very professional)
GDR German Democratic Republic; very loyal to the soviets
FRG Federal Republic of Germany; prosperous, parliamentary democracy; encouraged private industry and capitalist economy, but provided social services
Konrad Adenauer Christian Democratic leader; chancellor for 14 years; provided resolute leadership, stablitity, and sovereignty; strengthened ties with west and France
Ostpolitik 'eastern policy'; encouraged building bridges to soviet union and GDR; Brandt (mayor or west Berlin)
Prague Spring '68 in Czechoslovakia; Czechs revolted, but Russia rolled in the tanks
IMF International Monetary Fund; agency in international financial settlements; gave loans to vos to manage temporary balance of payments and reduce currency devaluaton
World Bank Internaional Bank for Reconstruction and Development; long-term loans to gov for economic development
ED the 'european community'; France, FRG, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, and Belgium; economic integration of Western Europe; helped created French-German friendship
Great Patriot War aka WWII in Russia
Nikita Krushchev de-stalinization 'thaw'; Warsaw Pact; U-2 crisis (thaw comes crashing down); Berlin Wall; Cuban Missile Crisis
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; prevented discrimination in international trade; lower tariffs and remove nontariff barriers
Leonid Brezhnev Reinstitutes stalinist controls; "Detente" with the west; Invasion of Afghanistan (ends detente)
A. Slzhenitsyn wrote The Gulag Archipichu (or somethin like that) and One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich; a depiction of human suffering in forced labor camps
Boris Pasternak forbidden to accept Nobel Peace PRize for novel Dr. Zhivago; condemned opressiveness of soviet society
Yuri Andropov crushing of Hungarian revolt; heightening of Cold War tensions with the west due to uncertainty of soviet leadership and internal soviet problems
Chernenko heightening of cold war tensions with the west due to uncertainty of soviet leadership and internal soviet problems
soviet satellites Yugoslavia, Albania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, German Democratic Republic
de-Stalinization led by Krushchev; allowed some of Stalin's bad things to be public
detente easing of strained relations between USSR and US
massive retaliation a new kind of arms race between USSR and America; also known as mutual deterrence
Suez Crisis president Nasser of Egypt claimed ownership of the Suez Canal, thus causing an International crisis by denying access to shipping form other nations; GB couldnt invade because then USSR would roll in the tanks
Sputnik first satelite launched; unanticipated announcement ignited the Space Race; if they can get a rocket into orbit, they can crash a rocket into us
ICBM aka intercontinental ballistic missiles; were capable of reaching any target in each other's territory; could deliver nuclear weapons in a manner that was virtually immune to defensive measures
Fidel Castro de facto dictator of Cuba; rose in a popular revolution against the dictator Batista; turned Cuba into a communist state
Cuban Missile Crisis Bay of Pigs made Castro uneasy and asked USSR for missiles; Kennedy paniced and said that if USSR did take the missiles off, he would invade; Krushchev backed off and would take out the missiles, US agree to take out missiles from Turkey
Vietnam War partitioned after WWII, SU north, US south; US got involved in the war when the north was trying to take over the south; when north and south signed a deal for peace, US pulled out, but the communists, continued fighting; north side won
Brezhnev Doctrine the right for USSR to intervene in a satellite stae's political developments; bascially, the USSR has the right to control eastern Europe
SALT strategic arms limitation treaty; place limits and restraints on some of their central and most important armaments; check the rivalry in their most powerful nuclear weapons
Helsinki Conference surveillance of human rights in nations that signed the agreements; highpoint of Cold War detente
Margaret Thatcher GB prime minister; Conservative rule; cut gov spending and focused on economic growth; curbed inflation, but high unemployment
'evil empire' the Soviet Union, according to Reagan
Mikhail Gorbachev perestroika; glasnost; arms control and reducton deals with the west; decision to not intervene in 1989 Eastern Europe revolts led to dismantling of Berline Wall, freeing of satellite nations, unification of control, and collapse of SU
perestroika drastic modification of the centrally planned economy; wanted to end the economic stagnation; allow a little capitalism (NEP?)
glasnost 'openness'; right to voice the need t change; freedome of the press and freedom of speech; end of totalitarian control over life
START strategic arms limitations; Gorbachev wanted to reduce the stain on SU's economy; detente as way to avoid catastrophe, remove intermediate range missiles in Europe
solidarity an independent trade union federation in Poland; returned in 89 when Solidarity lead coalition controlled the majority of the parliamentary elections; took steps to transform itself into Westernish socialism
Lech Walesa militant leader and national symbol of protest; leader of solidarity
Helmut Kohl chancellor of Western Germany at the time of its unification w/east Germany
Charter 77 organization of intellectuals that wondered if human rights were being violated
89 is 68 upside down revolutiion of 1989 much different from Prague Spring; peaceful transition and revolution; Velvet Revolution
Ceausescu dictator of Romania; only Eastern European dictator to not step down peacefully; eventually overthroned and assassinated
Boris Yeltsin popular reformer who emerged as the first president of 'republican' Russia after the failed coup and the collapse of the USSR; 'october days' of 1993 led to a dismantling of the old soviet system and the beginning of a market economy
CIS 'commonwealth of independent states'; loose organization consisting of Russia and 10 other republics
October Days those wanting to return to old soviet style communism attemped a failed 'coup' in 1991; it not only failed but de-legitimizes the communist party, resulting in Gorbachev's resignation and the break up of the Soviet Union
Slobadan Milosevic a former communist leader in serbia; serb offensive to kee all the serbs together; promoted violence and ethnic cleansing
ethnci cleansing milosevic's reason for killing, looting, and raping non-serbs
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