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Fascism+WWII - Terms

Socialism (communism) equality of all peoples, democratic in principal; based on economic laws (cant do anything about way society happens); humanitarian ideas; control the economy
Fascism unequality of peoples; based on leadership principal (Great Leader); will- if you are strong enough, you can change history; glorifies war and aggression; supervise the economy
Nazism fascism on steroids; super patriotism; aryan supremacy; racism; militarism (war is healthy and good); leader principal; law and order; ANTI-COMMUNIST
Militarism army leaders run the government; all functions of society geared to benefit the military; success is measured by military conquest and expansion; war is the goal rather than something to be avoided
Benito Mussolini seized control of Italy in 1922 (first western facsist dictator); preWWI, revolutionary and socialist; postWWI, turned into nationalist
Blackshirts fascists; brawled w/communists and ordinary workers in strikes/summer of 1920
March on Rome Blackshirts mobilized and threatened a coup (Mussolini safe in Milan); Italian president refused to sign martal law and cabinet resigned; Mussolini declared premier; techinaclly legal
Duce 'leader'; Mussolini's title; denounced democracy, liberalism, capitalism, Marxism, socialism, class awareness; promoted national solidarity, and efficicecy
Adolf Hiltler not an intellectual or a socialist- restless ignorant type of radicalism; very race conscience, anti-monarchy/noblity/mixed nationalities/semetic; recieved high honors in WWI
German Workers Party Hitler and army's political instruction program (propaganda to keep veterans and workers patriotic and militaristic); hated Weimar democracy; Hitler as leader
Nazis Hitler's proclaimed 25 point program; German Workers' Party -> National Socialist German Workers' Party
Brownshirts private 'army' of the Nazis; also called storm troopers
Storm Troopers private 'army' of the Nazis; also called brownshirts
Beer Hall Putsch Hitler and Brownshirts failed rebellion; 'national revlutioon has broken out', but easicly suppressed by police; Hitler went to jail
Mein Kampt My Struggle; book Hitler wrote in prison; had personal recollection, racism, nationalism, collectivism, theories of history, etc.; Hitler became figure of national prominence
Volk the German people
Reichstag Nazis had 230 seats, but later dropped to 196; Hitler named chancellor of coalition cabinet by Papen and Schleicher to share w/Nationalists
Third Reich Hitler's new Germany; "last 1000 years"
Fuhrer means 'leader'; Hitler's title; represented the 'true German people'
Nuremberg Laws (1935) no more citizenship rights to Jews (non-Geman) and no intermarriage/relationship between Jews and non Jews
Kristallnacht Nov 9 1938; 'night of broken glass'; Nazis vandalized, looted, and set fire to Jewish shops, homes, and synagogues; beat up thousands
Holocaust state organized systematic destruction of Jews; 6 million German and EuropeanJews died in the death camps
Gestapo Hitler's secret political police; Geheime Staatspolizei; captured thousands who were killed/detained in permanent concetration camps
Strength Through Joy attended to people with small incomes; provided entertainment and vacations to poor, good Germans
pacifism the insistence of peace, regardless of concequences; mood felt in the 1930s by western democracies
Maginot Line French fortifications on eastern frontier (facing Germany); fR hoped any following wars owuld be defensive
appeasment Hitler rages, arouses fear of war, takes a little, "its all I want", Western powers back off, repeat; Hitler creates an emergency and GB and FR let him have his way
isolationism US had rigid policy of isolation; no loans, supplies, etc to any Euro country if they've declared war; aggressors benefited
Locarno agreements confirmed post WWI boarders; repudiated by Hitler in March 1936 with occupation of Rhineland; neither GB or FR were willing to check Hitler's power
Anschluss the union of Germany and Austria in 1938
Munich Crisis GB and FR appeased Hitler and allowed him to take German parts of Bohemia; death sentence to Czechoslovakia; showed helpless weakness to western powers
Francisco Franco established authoritarian, fasciest rule over Spain
Rome-Berlin Axis the diplomatic area where Hitler and mussolini hoped they might infulence
Sudentenland area of Czechoslovakia that was primarily German
Polish Corridor the Polish area that separated Germany from other Germanic peoples (Pomerelia)
Edouard Daiadier French premier
Luftwaffe the German air force
Blitzkreig lightning warfare; Germany bombs, roll in the tanks, take advantage
phony war nothing much happened at first; GB and FR thought they could get away without fighting; little air action; late 1939
Charles de Gaulle Frenchmen who led the 'Free French' movement
Marshal Petain the parliament that ruled the remaining French republic; 1/3 that wasn't under Nazi direct control; headed authoritarian regime
Festuna Europa Fortress of Europe; aka Germay's control over Europe
Winston Churchill British prime minister (1940) after Chamberlain; 'blood, sweat, and tears'
Erwin Romme leader of German troops in Africa
Marshal Badogilo gained power in Italy (August of 1943) after fall of Mussolini
Harry S. Truman new US representative at Potsdam conference; decided to drop the bombs
Clement Attiee new GB prime minister
Battle of Britain air battle between GB and Germany; GB wins
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