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Russian Revolution -


Russo-Japanese War battle over Manchuria and Korea; Japan won are proved that they are a Great Power; Russia- stiffle czar critisism and secure Vladiviostak; Russia losses
Alexander III son of Alexander II (freed serfs); reactionary and silenced even peaceful criticism
pograms work/labor camps for the Jews and political dissenders in Russia; worsest up until that point
Russification oppostie of nationalism; forced assimulation of Ukraines, Poles, Lithuanians, etc into Russian culture; led by Alexander III
Pobiedonostev leader of Russification, procurator of Holy Synod; saw west as alien and bad, attacked rationalism and liberalism
Constitutional Democrats aka Cadets; 'constitutionalists' that worried more about the need of an elected parliament than troubles of factories and peasansts; rising business and professional clasess, landownders
mirs peasant village farmning communtities
Kulaks more wealthy (but still really poor) peasants; 'big farmers' who could own and lease a small part of land; later hated
populists most of revolutionary intelligentsia; interested in peasant problems and welfare; admired the mirs and read Marx/Engels; capitalism did not have to seceede socialism; revolution will come soon
Social Revolutionaries supported peasant revolution;
Social Democrats supported a working class revolution
Bolsheviks 'majority' of Social Revolutionaries; revolution now, dont wait to industrialize
Mensheviks 'minority'; revolution needs to wait for industrialization
Bloody Sunday a group of peaceful protesters tried to tell their issues to czar Nicholas II; he was out of town, torrps paniched and killed 100s
soviets councils of workers; main one is in St. Petersburg
Ocotober Manifesto czar promised a constitution, civil liberties, and Duma; divided oppostition (threw a bone); constitutional Dem, others figured it was a deception (which it was)
Father Gapon priest who believed that the czar just didn't realize that there were problems in Russia; led group that caused Bloody Sunday
Duma Russian parliament; never had much power - no power over foreign policy, budget or gov personnel; 4 dumas
Peter Stolypin wanted to build up propertied classes as friends of Russia; believed a state had little to fear if it was supported by intellectuals; broadened powers of zemstvos; unwilling support from czar and hate from revolutionaries; killed
Pravada Bolshevik party paper (freedom of Russian press)
Little Father aka the czar Nicholas II
Alexandra czarina (who was kinda crazy); German and hated all Russians outside of her family
Rasputin self-appointed holy man; cured Alexandras son of hemophillia; assassinated
Petrograd Soviet "the" soviet to be in; where Bolsheviks first gained popularity (among the soviets); equivalent to Paris Commune
Provisional Government continued the war, said they would help redistriubte land but never did; overthrown by Bolsheviks
Alexander Kerensky a moderate Social Revolutionist; only socialist in PG; named head of PG; blaimed him for allowing counterrevolutionary plot under his gov; abandoned
Order No. 1 Petrograd Soviets declared that command in the army was controled by committes elected by officers and soldiers; fearing reactionary officers; it worked
General Kornilov reactionary military commander; lead counterrevolutionary attempt, support by both Left and Right (to defeat soviets); failed
Russian Congress of Soviets pre-replacement of PG; Lenin and Bolshevik led government; call this until Lenin declared PG extint
Counil of People's Commissars declared PG defunct; new name for Russian Congress of Soviets; so new Russain government; Lenin- head; Trotsky- military; Stalin- commissar for nationalities
Leon Trotsky foreign affairs; similar to Robespierre
communist Party renamed Bolshevik party
Cheka Lenin's political police; 'All Russian Commission of Struggle Against Counterrevolution, Speculation, and Sabatoge'
KGB eventual successor of Cheka
Red Army Russian/communist Army; led by Trotsky
war communism nationalized largest industries, but most still under workers' committees
Vladivostok Allied countries wanted Bolsheviks to go down; planned to recapture Russia by starting at this city and movie east to Moscow in Russian Civil War
Whites the enemies of the Reds in the russian Civil War; made of Russians, US, and Japan
Red Terror physical extermination of those who opposed the communist regime; carried out by Lenin and the Cheka
Kronstadt sailors here were among first adherants to Bolshevism; began to object to domination of Soviets; killed, like Hebertists
Constituent Assembly the new Russian government
USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; 15 'republics', Russia leading country; split into nationalities
Supreme Soviet elected government of USSR; mostly just for show
Soviet of Nationalities upper house of Supreme Soviet; representatives of all regions and cultural districts- mostly Russian and Slavic
Soviet of the Union lower house
Communitst Party real leaders of the USSR
Central Committee largest, starting place within the party; 70+ members
Politburo 12 or so members; select few from CC; dominated discussion of party and had authority over all levels
General SEcretary leader of the Politboro; calls all the shots; similar to a president (ex: Lenin, Stalin, Krushchev)
NEP New Economic Plan; allowence of some capital to build up - maybe kinda easing up?? but we'll never know cause BAM assassination
Leningrad Petrograd/St. Petersburg
permanent revolution an incessand drive for proletariat objectives on all fronts in all parts of the world; Stalin attempting to force communism down Europe's throat; cause of fascism
Five-Year Plan launched in 1928; rapid industrialization and collectivisation of agriculture; causes great famine in Ukraine
Gosplan agency that administered the first 5Year Plan; determined how much of a national effort should go into formation of capital and how much should go to daily consumption
collectivization originally only 1/5 of Russain farms, but plan eventually included mostly all Russian farms; collective farms owned by peasants as a whole; lead to famine
stakhanovites 'labor heroes' who increased productivity
Serge Kirov Stalin's oldest alliance; assassinated by Stalin, igniting the start of the Great Terror
Great Terror Stalin's purge of his political enemies; killed 3 million +
Old Bolsheviks originial Bolsheviks; Stalin murdered almost all during GT; they 'confessed' for crimes after months of torture
Comminterm communist international
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