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CNS- bio5/sc

neural tissue, brain and spinal chord

QuestionAnswer
axon collateral an extension of axon
composition of neurons body, axon, dendrites, all organelles except centrioles, endoneurium, nissl bodies, myelin sheath, schwann cells
Somatic nervous system "of the body", (skin, skeletal muscles...) voluntary, information from CNS to skeletal muscle, somatic motor nerves
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands. Divides into sympathetic and parasympathetic. visceral (internal organs) motor nerve
levels of organization of the nervous system CNS>PNS>Afferent division and Efferent Division> SNS and ANS>Sympathetic division and parasympathetic divisions
Pineal gland secretes melatonin which regulates sleep/wake cycles. located in epithalamus
Thalamic function# relay station for sensation, relays area for information before going to sensory cortex except smell
Basal Nuclei# >control of muscle tone >coordination of learned movement patterns >processing, integration and relay of information from cerebral cortex to the thalamus
hypothalamic functions >controls autonomic nervous system >controls endocrine system >regulates feeling of thirst, hunger, satiety >controls body temperature
PNS all neural tissue outside CNS; spinal and cranial nerves. Carries messages to and from spinal chord &brain
White matter vs. Gray matter White- militated axons gray- un-mylinated axons, cell bodies, dendrites
3 types of synapses -w/ another neuron -neuromuscularjunctions -neuroglandular junctions
Astrocytes# blood brain barrier; they wrap around capillaries, keeping blood out of brain, protects brain from toxins -supports & anchor neurons -Control chemical environment
Myelin sheath# produced by oligodendrocytes and schwann's cells -protects, insulates and improves speed of nerve impulse
Dorsal sections of spinal chord# posterior gray horn is thinner and smaller, sensory neurons, dorsal root ganglion
anterior sections of spinal chord# anterior gray horn is large and wide, motor neurons
Ependymal cells CNS neuroglia: lines ventricles
oligodendrocytes CNS neuroglia: wraps CNS nerve fibers, protects axons and speeds up electrical current
Arachnoid mater loose brain covering
pia mater adheres directly to brain
Protection of the brain bone, meninges, CSF, blood brain barrier
Schwann cells PNS neuroglia: surrounds axons of PNS
Microglia CNS neuroglia: -phagocytes
Cells of the nervous system neurons-conduct electrical input -neuroglia-supporting cells
Parietal lobe function primary sensory cortex
CSF# surrounds brain and spinal cord -provide liquid cushion that gives buoyancy to CNS organs
Meninges# dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater
dura mater# layer separated forming dural sinuses
interceptors internal (visceral) environment: montiors glucose levels, sodiums levels, internal systems
occipital lobe function primary auditory & olfactory cortex
Insula gustatory (taste) cortex
Blood brain barrier# bloodborne substances are separated from neurons by: endothelium of capillary walls and astrocytes
proprioceptors internal (somatic) environment ex. know when joints are bent
Frontal lobe function# primary motor cortex
CNS# Brain and Spinal Chord. Integrates, processes and coordinates sensory input and motor input
4 basic types of neurons# a) anaxonic neuron (special sensory) b) bipolar neuron (special sensory) c) pseudounipolar (most sensory neurons) d) multipolar neuron (most motor neurons)
Cerebellum functions provides precise timing of appropriate patters of skeletal muscle contraction. (ex. coordination, balance and posture)
Medulla Oblongata functions and divisions vital reflex center: cardiovascular center and respiratory centers (ex. coughing, sneezing) Olives-relays info to cerebrum&cerebellum Pyramids: cross over of motor tracts
Midbrain structures -cerebral aqueduct, -cerebral peduncles -corporar quadrigemina (superior colluclus; visual relfex, inferior colliculus; auditory reflex)
brain stem Midbrain, pons, medula oblongata -pathway for tracts between higher&lower neural centers
Axon# 1 axon per neuron, contains no nissl bodies or golgi apparatus
nerve fibers# long axons
All neurons in the cortex are... # interneurons
Exteroceptors external environment ex.loss of pain, touch, temp
Created by: holt.gracea