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WWI - Terms

"place in the sun" a sort of recognition that Germans thought they deserved due to their success; supremacy like that of Great Britain
Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy and lasted until WWI; if any became involved in war w/2 or more powers, allies would give military aid (force)
"splendid isolation" GB cherished the fact that the country did what it wanted and would form no alliances w/continental states; therefore, international relations were very bad
Triple Entente GB and France, Russia; only a close understanding, neither side said what it would do if war
"Union of Death" Bosnian revolutionary group that completed the assassination of heir to Hapsburg empire, Franz Ferdinand
Black Hand nickname given to the unknown man who actually killed Franz Ferdinand; acted w/out knowledge of Servian officials
Sarajevo Bosnian capital (in Austrian Empire); where Franz Ferdinand was killed
"blank check" Germnay told AH to be firm w/the Servs; so AH posed strict terms on the Serbs, who knew Russia would help and terms were too strict to accept; not accepted
Edward Grey GB foreign secretary during WWI
Wilhelm (William) II German emperor at time of WWI
Central Powers Germany and Austria Hungary; former Triple Alliance minus Italy
Allies GB, Russia, France, Italy, and US; former Triple Entente plus Italy and US
Schlieffen Plan first, defeat France as quickly as possible by moving through Belgium, then more leisurely against Russia; fails
Marne September 5-12; Germany had to retreat against France; hope of France falling in one attack was ended; first major battle on the western front; stalemate on western front
Tannenburg first major battle on Eastern Front; Russian losses are heavy, but they keep fighting
Gallipoli GB and France attempt to open communication w/Russia and assist them; fails
Jutland Major naval battle between GB and Germany in the North Sea w/no clear winner
Verdun German offensive on Western Front w/the hope of breaking the stalemate-fails
Somme French and GB offensive on the western front w/the hope of breaking the stalemate; fails
contraband goods headed for a country at war; munitions and raw materials that can be used for military equipment
noncontraband goods headed for a country at war; food and raw cotton; suppossed to be able to import this during wartime; ignored by Allies
Lusitania a British sealiner that the German submarines topedoed; 1200 people died (118 Americans); carried war munitions and Germany had warned America
Zimmerman Telegram Zimmerman (German foreign affairs) sent telegram to Mexico City- if Mexico joins Germany, they will regain their lost territories; intercepted and decoded by GB
Zionists saw impending Ottoman collapse as an opportunity to have a Jewish state
"Jewish homeland" backed by GB; Jewish state in Palestine that had been Arab for over 1000 years
Woodrow Wilson campaigned on 'he kept us out of war' but eventually joined w/Allies; controlling anarchic nationalism and preventing war in the future
Joseph Joffre British recruitment campaign to supplement troop levels (formed by him)
Nicholas II Russian czar who abdicated on March 15 1917
Provisional Government took over after Nicholas II left; made of liberal noblemen and middleclass leaders; didn't pull out of WWI
V.I. Lenin leader of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Marxist party (more extreme); spent war years away, returned in 1917; LENINBOMB!!!!!!!1!!!!ONE!!!!
Petrograd St. Petersburg's name during WWI; coolest soviet
Bolsheviks more extreme Marxists; led by enin; won power in Nov 1917; want peace w/Germany
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Bolsheviks vanted to stop war w/Germnany so gave up Poland, Ukraine, Finaldn, Baltic to leave war; Lenin didnt care, believed in worldwide communist revolution
Ferdinand Foch commander in cheif of all Allied forces in France w/national commanders subordinate to him
pershing American commander in France
Argonne final Allied Offensive; Germany realized it couldn't win WWI (forest in eastern France); Germany might have to face invasion
convoying made effective for the US because of larger naval base; ships protecting other ships (naval protecting cargo)
Reichstag the German congress; forced to sign Treaty of Versailles
Ludenoff leader of German military and a freakin genius; knew Germany is screwed, so allows negotiation; why? 'buy some time' to recoup, but really so h can blame the loss on the Weimar Republic; saving face and using gov as scapegoat instead of military
Weimar Republic the forced German republic ecause of war; democracy has little chance of surviving in Germany- its democracy's fault that we lost the war; easy to be scapegoat: nothing was fought in Germany, people plumped w/propoganda during war (thought G. was winning)
planned economy the state attempted to control all wealth, resources, and moral to one end/causes; gov controls economy in WWI
rationalization coordination of production in the interests of the whole country; no more strikes, dress/eat modestly
conscription allocation of manpower; men were drafed pretty much no matter what to fight
war socialism due to less supplies, gov controls became more thourough and efficient; again, gov controls economy; gov wont want to give up this power after the war, so Europe becomes more socialist after the war
profiteers those who exploited shortages to make big money
Treaty of Versailles the German treaty between Allies and Germany; either too harsh, or too nice, either way, doesnt work; Wilson's baby, but US doesnt even sign it (age of isolationism)
Fourteen Points peace established; end secret diplomacy and treaties, freedom of seas, remove barriers of int. trade, reduce arms, readjust colonies, self determination, international pol. organization to avoid war; very idealized
Big Four US (Wilson), England (Lloyd George), France (Clemenceau), Italy (Orlando)
League of Nations permanent int. body where all nations should meet and discuss/settle disputes; no resorting to war; maintain sovereignty; Wilson uses League of Nations as a compromising point- give me this, and you can punish Germany; Us: "HAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHA...no"
Anglo-French-Am Treaty GB and US would join FR if it was attacked by Germans; Alsace and Lorraine to Fr, protected by Allied forces; US: "HAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHA...no"
mandates ability of Great Powers to control a coloney but not 'own it'; still free/independent under League of Nations; former colonies of the losing countries
Hall of Mirrors 2 abashed Germans were forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles here; sticking it to the Germans
cordon sanitaire the gap from Finland to Romania that used to be in the Russian Empire; essentially a buffer zone against communism
reparation money from damages that Germany was ordered to pay
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