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Chapter 14-16 -Terms

QuestionAnswer
Radical Socialists radical republican party in France's chamber; patriotic, anticlerical; advanced social legislation
Victorian Era 1837-1901; material progress; literary acomplishment; political stablitiy - England under Queen Victoria
Irish homerule an Irish parliament of their own; granted to Ireland in 1914; included Ulster of north
Kulturkampf battle for modern civilization and the struggle of German cutlure; Bismark
William II made Bismark resign; 'new course'; aggressive foreign policy, antisocialist laws dropped
Fabian Society consisted of workers who stood by their trade unions and middle class critics of capitalism; English, un-Marxist; no class conflict was necessary; content w/small, immediate solutions
revisionist socialism class confilt might not be completely inevitable; capitalism transformed to workers interests; obtain goals in democratic ways
revolutionary socialism workers unions might become top authority in society replacing property, market economy and government; achieve by strike of masses; popular in Italy and Spain
Origin of Species Charles Darwin (1859); evolution; 'struggle for existance' results in survival of fittest through natural selection of the most favored races
Sigmund Freud interpreted dreams (free recall of past lives); wrote The Interpretation of Dreams, where he concluded that humans were not rational
Albert Einstein e=mc2; time, space, and motion are relative to the observer (not absolute)
Herbert Spencer founder of Agnosticism; acknowledgement of ignorance, unknowable to science/forever
Friedrich Nietzche low opinion of modern society; against Christian values; loved courage, danger, intellect, and beauty more; humans driven by instinct, not thought
Vatican Council of 1870 pope is always right and above all else; cannot be questioned
John Stuart Mill philosopher of classical liberalism; actual universal sufferage
economic liberalism revival of tariff use; dislikes free trade and laissez-faire economic system
neomercantilism economic nationalism; tarifs, internal regulation w/out regard to effect on other countries;
realism unrealistic faith in churches(?) of stuggle and rejection of ideals
irrationalism belief in nonrational feelings like nihilism
Lenin leader of the Bolsheviks (more on him later probably)
Bolsheviks 'majority'; eventually become communist party and lead Russian Revolution of 1917
imperialism political and territorial control of European countries over 'backwards' nations
sphere of influence 3rd type of imperial control; different Euro countries had control of trade, advising, and investment in a specific part of a country; left country independent
"surplus capital" theory of imperialism imperialism rose from capitalists' pressure t oinvest abroad; if capital went more to social reforms, no need for imperialism
White Man's Burden to bring civilization and enlightenment to those who still sat in darkness (English term); condesending and unintentionally racist
Napoleon III's Mexican Plan wanted to establish a secret French state w/French captial and exports; Mexican empire w/Austrian archduke Maximillian as emperor
Congress of Berlin organized by Bismark in 1878; treaty of San Stefano, split up parts of Ottoman Empire; Balkans, Pan-Slavs, and Turks weren't happy; primary cause of WWI
David Livingstone 1841 went to Africa to help with medicine/religious reasons; Africans respected him; discovered by Stanely when believed to be lost by Europe
H.M. Stanley 'rescued' Livingstone and recognized potential for Euroepan colonies; went to Belguim king, Leopold III who started bringing Congo under Belgian control
Berlin Conference of 1885 set up territories of Congo Association as an international state and code for European powers that wish to annex African land; occupation must not be by paper only, but by administration and troops; wild scramble followed
Fahoda Crisis Britain challeneged France's control of Fashoda; there was a stand off between British and French; French backed off, created hatred for English in France
Boer War aka South African War; the Boers were Africans who didnt want to be taken over by England; in war, england killed 20000 women and children; brought w/in British system, but 2 republics were maintained
sepoys native Indian troops
Indian Mutiny aka the Sepoy Rebillion of 1857; war of sepoys between Britain; Britains won; GB authorities now rule directly; hwoever, they rule India through the Indians, not against
Empress of India Queen Victoria proclaimed empress in 1877
Opium Wars began modern phase of Chinese relations with the west
French Indochina French protectorate over Annam, Cochina, china, Tonkin (Vietnam), Laos, and Cambodia
Sino-Japanese War of 1894 Japan won dispute w/China; Korea as a free state; showed how moder nJapan really was
Open Door China is territorially intact and independent, but spheres of influence allowed; its proposed, liked by European nations (dont worry about Russia and Japan)
Boxer Rebellion Chinese secret society the "Boxers' broke out in inserection in 1899; Euro/Japan/US sent troops against; resulted in Qing dynasty wanted to westernize more and nationalism of China (anti-west)
Brussels Conerence of 1889 an international anti-slavery conference; 'stamp out slave trade in Africa'
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