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Chapter 13 - Terms

Wallachia and Moldovia occupied by Austria during Crimean War; to keep Russians out fo the Balkan Peninsula; become independenct after Crimean Wars - Romania
Roman See the pope
Italian Risorgimento dream of Italian rewurgence; desire for liberal national state of ancient times
Mazzini moral leader/philosopher behind Italian unification; would inspire and write the books
Cavor the politician behind Italian unification; used war to unify Italy and Sardinia
Garibald the brawns (muscle) behind Italian unification
Victor Emmanuel II king of the Kingdom of Italy;
doctrine of nationalities NIII wanted to consolidate nations as a historical step
Magenta and Soferino French and Piedmont victory over Austria
Turin capital of Piedmont- representatives of all North Italy; Venetia met here for 1st Parliament of enlargened Kingdom
Nice and Savoy NIII approved of new Piedmont nation and so annexed to France; okayed by plebicites
Garibaldi's Thousand "Red Shirts" personal followers of Gar who were armed for an expedition ot the south; Italian unification is the goal
Red Shrits names for Gariabaldi's Thousand
Naples (Kingdom of the Two Sicilies) corrupt gov of Naples quickly crumbles in presense of Gar and his 1000; plebicite in 2 kingdoms almost unanimously decides to join Italy
irrendentism Italy wanting, on nationalist views, to annex land in regions outside of its boarders; their 'rightful Italian land'
Crimean War Russia vs Turkey, France, GB, Kidgom of Sardinia (Piedmont), Austria
Peace of Paris Ottoman Empire is maintained (lesser of two evils); Moldovia and Wallachia vecome self-governing Romania; Serbia becomes self-governing; No Russian military on the Balc Sea; Danube River=international
Otto von Bismark Realpolitik; anti-liberalism, democracy and socialism; didn't trust the west; created unified German state through Prussia
Schieswig and Hostein first step to German unification was war with Denmark; Prussia wanted to claim these German states as their own
Seven Week's War second step to unification was war with Austria; "follow us, not them", prove that Prussia is the real German leader
North German Confederation governments of annexed lands disappeared; 1867- Prussia and 21 other German states form this; Prussia is the ruling state
Main this river separated North German Conferation from Austria and other German states
Reichstag lower chamber in NGC government; elected by universal male sufferage; kinda just for show, Bismark running the show
Ferdinand Lassalle had socialist followers; believed it possible to improve w/c conditions through the action of gov.; opposite of Marx; birth of revisionist marxism
Prince Leopold Hohenzoller who was king of Prussia, but let Bismark call all the shots; eliible for the Spanish throne, declined thrice before accepting; France eventually convinced him to give it up
Ems dispatch king at Ems and French diplomat had discussion and king telegraphed it to Bismark; edited it, and sent it to papers; evoked negative pubilc reation, leading to Prussia/NGC war with France (Franco-Prussian War)
Battle of Sedan France surrenders to Prussia; NapIII taken as prisoner; Franco-Prussian War ended quickly
Third Republic after NIII was taken from poweer, insurrection in Paris on Sep 4 declares Fr a republic
Hall of Mirrors room in palace of Versailles that Bismark declared the German Empire (1871); sticking it to the French
Alsace and Lorraine Bismark demanded that these territories be given to Germany; although these people spoke German, tey were culturally more French
Treaty of Frankfurt France aggreed to pay Germany 5 billion gold francs; cede Alsace-Lorraine; treaty of Franco-Prussian war
Ausgleich compromise of 1867 between Germans and Magyars; created a dual monarchy
Dual Monarchy Austria-Hungary has 2 governments, but ruled by same Hapsburg; basically independent, but again, common ruler in Francis Joseph
Leith West of river was Empire of Austria; east of river Kingdom of Hungary
Budapest delegates of two parliaments (Austria/Hungary) met at city and Vienna separately
"enourmous village" nickname of Russia
Westernizers those who favored further westernization of Russia
Slavophiles those who were proud of their eastern, slavic background; thought Russia should be modeled after them
intelligentsia know the difference between east and west; the smart, intellectual wealthier non-nobles
Alexander II was willing to compromise, but was therefore more of a threat to revolutionists; why? gets people on left to come with him, dividing the revolutionaries and saving the system; assassinated because of this
Act of Emancipation Alexander II; all serfs were set free from the land owned by nobels; mirs replaced old noble farms
mir Russian peasant village assembly; after emancipation, rather than est peasant private property, land become 'collective property' of the mir; served as a form of local gov (mir replace landlords)
zemstvos the leaders/people in charge of the mirs; governmental like system; took orders from Moscow; replaced landlords
Duma Russian parliament-type thing
nihilists those who favored complete destruction of the system; welcomed violence
Bakunin and Nechaiev Russian revolutionaries associated with the nihilist movements
Catechism of a Revolutionist written by Bakunin and Nechaiev; called for complete anihilation of the Russian system
People's Will planting revolutionary seeds among peasants, students and workers through propaganda, and to bring that revolution into effect through targeted violence against government family members; led by Volya
Alexander III led Russification of Russia; anti-west; 'last true autocrat'; Repression of opponents; Undoing the reforms of his father; restore Russia’s position internationally and national identity, which he believed had been diluted throughout the C19th.
Edict of 1864 Alexander II; allowed for a duma
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