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Chapter 12 - Terms

QuestionAnswer
secret societies underground organizations that promote revolution and allow ideas/information to travel
Louis Phillipe refused to give up anything, no limitations; people revolted/protested causing LP to abdicate the throne
Guizot LP's prime minister
February Revolution of 1848 new revolutions, working class and bourgeoisie dont unite on the left anymore; reformers want change, overthrown in 3 days, but now that he's gone, what are we going to do?
Constituent Assembly those creating the new constitution for France
National Workshops extensive project of unemployment relief; excluded women;to show w/c that we care
National Guard civilian militia; overturned revolutionary gov and reinstated Constituent Assembly
Bloody June Days violent revolution of the w/c; February: overthrow LP (are we gonna have socialism or const. republic); June: w/c huge revolt; once and for all, we must now always fear socialist revolution; BOURGEOISIE JOINS WITH THE RIGHT; rise of NapII
proletarian basically just the w/c
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte nephew of Napoleon; put in charge to handle the extreme left socialists - i'll let you keep your money; appease w/c through National Workshops; i will beat them up and throw em a bone (divide them), you keep money
2 ways to end a revolution crush it, or compromise (appease THROW EM A BONE)
putsches synonym for coup d'etat
Napoleonic Legend people looking at Napoleon kindly; peasants - Napoleon had given them free land; positive memories of Napoleon (NapIII played off them)
Arch of Triumph 1836; drove home the memories of the glories of Napoleon
Legitimists favored the bourbon line of Charles X in Spain
Orleanists favored Louis Phillipe
Yugoslavs in eastern europe, there's a non slavic barrier that divides Norht and South Slavs; dream of a "Yugoslavia", one country of all southern slavs
Kingdom of Sardinia only Italian state to be ruled by an Italian leader; eventual state to unify Italy;
March Laws laws passed by Hungarian Diet declaring independence from the Hapsburgs
Pan-Slav Assembly Bohemia didn't consider itself German and instead created its own slavic-only assembly; problem? north of non-slavic barrier, unlike southern slavs
Austroslavism Behemian/Slavic in Austrian Empire you could: 1- accept it; 2- revolt; 3- (this) middle ground: still want slavic identity, freedom, but do it within the state of Austria
Francis Joseph succeeded to the Austrian throne after Ferdinand abdicated
Pius IX reforming minister was assassinated, fled from Rome and eventually restored; was a liberal pope before scared bt revolt in Rome
Mazzini philosophical leader of Italian unification; inspired the movement, the brains behind it
Syllabus of Errors book by Pius IX; warned all Catholics against anything for liberalism, progress, and modern civilization; cant be a good Catholic if you support the revolutions
Bach System like the new Metternich; modernize Austrian government: out with the medival, more modern mindset
Frankfurt Assembly left wing approach to the unifying of Germany (fails); not an official assembly, but a bunch of people who have no authority to actually do anything, but could maybe find people who do to come along with their ideas; goal: liberal & unified Germany
Frederick William IV neomedival romantic who didnt want to share authority; rioting in 1848- allows election of first all-Prussian legislative assembly; proposed to get crown of unified Germany, but cant do that, could start civil war
Zollverein a tariff union that included almost all of Prussia
Pre-Parliament organizers try to plan an all-German assembly; eventually call Frankfurt Assembly with the goal of German unification
Great-Germans Germany+Austria+Hungary; leadership under the Hapsburgs; they might want to, would they abandon slavic land?
Little-Germans Germany-Austria+Prussia; Hohenzollers
Declaration of the Rights of the German People written during Frankfurt Assembly; like in France, but just for Germany, not for universal rights; numerous indiv. rights; civil liberties
Germanism German national movement; must act this way in order to unify - 1000 years worth of unification in a month
forty-eighters disappointed German liberals and revolutionists that migrated to the US after the failed revolutions of 48
"springtime of peoples" the dreams of proletain revolutions throughout Euroep in 1848
realism art and literature movement; portray life as it actually was without an attempt to make it better or more noble; return to science for answers
positivism 3 stages in human history: 1- theological 2-metaphysical 3-scientific
Auguste Comte founder of the philsosophy of positivism and sociology
sociology the science of society; observation of general facts to develop a scientific law of socail progress
Realpolitik politics of reality; give up utopian dreams for honest gov; gov shouldnt be guided by ideology, but should do whatever works best for the situation; machiovellian; war used as a strategic tool
Karl Marx Marx's dialectic was class warfare (material and economic) result in the ideas; flip equation of Hegel; your reality is based on your economic conditions; without economics, and wealth, no need for government (gov only there to pit people against money)
Friedrich Engels one of Karl Marx's friends and collaberators
materialism everything is an outgrowth fo physical or physiological forces; aka you are the sum of your parts
Communist Manifesto written by Marx and Engels in 1848; Medival: noble vs serf; Industrial Revolution changed cycle; Bourg vs Proletariat; Pro overthrow bourg; socialist dictatorship leads to communsim (worldwide)
Capital Marx's huge work; first volume published in German (1867), final two editions published after Marx's death
Hegel in order to enjoy true freedom, we must have a potent independet state; reality is a process of unfolding change; the conditions make the ideas (Marx, the ideas make the conditions)
alienation social and state of mind where humans become distanced from the objects they work with; society workers couldn't benefit from their labor
Condition of the Working Classes in England Engel's book that followed Marx's conclusions; depressed labot was a fact; labor recieved a small portion of the income; gov and parliament were in the hands of the wealthy, churches didnt care about problems- only wanted to keep power & control over w/c
surplus value Marx's labor theory that the w/c was being robbed; wages they got only a fraction of the value of the goods they produced; difference kept by bourg capitalists; since workers didntget wages=to what they produced, overproduction would always occur
dialectical materialism all change comes through the class of opposing elements; events happen in history for good and sufficient reasons, shaped by forceds and structual changes rather than by individual/chance events; conditions are the roots that trigger ideas; Marx's theory
Council of State inner circle of NapoleonIII's trusted advisors; people who advise and actually make decisions of NapIII (like a cabinet)
Senate really just for show; ceremonial upper house - appointed people, rewarding best followers/political enemies (they have no real say)
Legeslative Body really just for show; is an election process, but not responcilbe for any major laws; "rubber stamp" cant oppose NapIII; elected by universal male sufferage
Tuileries where NapIII conducts his business; central location
Eugenie Spanish wife of NIII; not an arranged marriage
Baron Haussmann a civil engenieer- structure of towns; widens streets of Paris, modernizing city; Public- modernize, trasportation more efficient; Real- they could put down revolts easier; no longer can rebels barricade themselves in the streets
socialist emperor NOT a socialist, but because of things NapIII does to convince left w/c to be on his side
Suez Canal French built, English owned; connected Mediterrainean to Indian Ocean and stuff
Liberal Empire NOT liberal empire, but those are the people that benefited (bourg)
l'empire, c'est la paix "the empire means peace"
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