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Chapter 11 - Terms

Industrial Revolution, -isms, and Age of Metternich

QuestionAnswer
Industrial Revolution going to machine made production instead of domestic system (great economic change); mid-late 1700s in GB
Neolithic Revolution the first agricultural revolution; shift from hunting and gathering to farming
capital wealth used to create more wealth
enclosure acts Parliament decides to enclose mini farms and give to big farmers; to include everyone in more productive 18th century farming; NOT government taking over the land
mills aka factories; displaced farmers would work here; bad conditions, overcrowded; takes awhile for reform to happen
Boulton and Watt created the steam engine; allowed mills and factories to be powered by something besides water (dont have to be by rivers anymore)
George Spehenson's Rocket early steam locomotive
textiles cotton (GB no longer needs to get it from India)
Manchester famous, prototype of an industrialized British city; has no representation in Parliament, so it takes awhile to reform (plus economic capitalism - Adam Smith laissez-faire)
cotton lords like factory is the manor; want to replace, think as a new nobility
Factory Act first reforms for mills; no extreme child labor
laissez-faire Adam Smith; government stays out of the affairs of business (not regulated); takes awhile for reform to happen in Parliament (plus Napoleon)
iron law of wages the doctrine or theory that wages tend toward a level sufficient only to maintain a subsistence standard of living; if I pay you more, you'll have more kids; agruement that the government/businessmen are on your side
dismal science population would always grow faster than food, dooming mankind to unending poverty and hardship; aka life sucks
romanticism more of a movement, philosophy, antienlightenment; cant ignore other side of humanity, feelings and nature; would like Dark Ages; right wing but NOT a political movement
monarchism wants absolute monarchy; still there, but old school and right wing by early-mid 19th century
conservatism general, blanket term; protect the status quo and resist change (tradition); for mid 1800s, conservatives are mostly nobles
liberalism generic, blanket term - always same spot, what they want will change; willingness to change and reform; bourgeoisie, common wealthy people; want just enough change to benefit them, but no more
radicalism immediate, sweeping, drastic change; for majority of people, working class (factory workers); different kinds; economic line: to right- political change only, to left-political and economic change
republicanism NOT republican party today; freely elect representatives, NOT a monarchy; radical right up to economic line
socialism government owns business, plans economy, and pays you a just wage to everyone in society
Marxism gov takes over economy (all things socialist); eventually elimination of wealth and private property MORE LATER
communism no longer need for economics (bye bye private property); share burden and benefits together; all comm. are socialists, but not all socail. are comm.
nationalism draw lines around themselves (country) for religion, race, etc, and declaring yourself sovereign; term itself is right, we're different than you- can go crazy and say i'm better; its gonna take a revolution: its cool new to do this; in reality, LEFT WING
constitutionalism have a constituion that limits the government
humanitarianism leftish if gov gives moeny,; charity is more of a rightish mode
feminism left wing, but right of economic line; if you dont know what this is, you're stupid
individualism gotta fend for yourself, laissez-faire; pretty moderate
capitalism depends on what you want
Metternich Austrian foreign minister who orchestrated Europe's affairs after Napoleon; main goal was to maintain a system in Europe with Hapsburgs on top (conservatism)
Carlsbad Decrees a set of regulations designed to check the growth of liberalism and nationalism in Germany; 1819
Six Acts of 1819 GB; demonstration in St. Peter's Fields for liberal reforms was violently put down; ended any revolutionary possibilities in GB
Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818) powers withdraw forces from France; Alexander I suggests a European union w/international military forces; powers blocked this idea
Congress of Troppay (1820) mett turns Alex I reactionary; Mett wanted to unite the powers in collective security against revolution; Fr and GB reject proposal; Austria, Russia, and Prussia agree- forming a type of anti-revolutionary alliance
Congress of Verona (1822) Greek revolutiionary attempt to convert the Turkish empire to a Greek empire failed with little international support; French troops are authorized to invade Spain and successfully resotre the church and king
Monroe Doctrine succesfully contributed to the reactionary movement of not spreading to Euro colonies to Western Hemisphere
Russian Decemberist Revolt after Alexander I's death; succession dispute; 1st modern revolutionary movement in Russia, as rebels called for a constiution for Russia; Constance please take throne? but Nichola I takes it
Charles X of France resisted reform in France until rioting in July of 1830 forced his abdication; succeded by 'compromise' king, Louis Phillipe
Belgium was guaranteed as a ____ state because of the Treaty of Vienna neutral (forbid invasion)
disappearance of 'Congress Poland' Polish revolution in 1830, crushed under Nicholas I; incorporated into the Russian Empire
Reform Bill of 1832 reallocated the seats in the House of Commons
Factory Act of 1833 forbad the labor of children less than nine years old in the textile mills
Ten Hours Act of 1847 limited the labor of women and kids to ten hours a day
Repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 lowered tariffs on imported farm products; resulted in British dependence on world economy
Congress of Vienna (maybe repeat, but idk) want to keep the land around France strong; restore all original monarchs back in power; balance of power between 5 Great Powers (GB, France, Russia, Austria, Prussia_
St. Peter's Fields aka Peterloo; reform movement in GB
Constantine (of Russia) Constantine and Constitution; old, but favored some modernization
Nicholas I (of Russia) more of a good old fashioned Russian czar
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