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Unit 5 Political

Frederick

WordDefinition
Annexation Incorporation of a territory into another geo-political entity
Antarctica Southernmost continent in the world. It has no permanent residents and doesn't belong to any country
Apartheid Afrikaans for apartness, it was the segregation of blacks in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. It was created to keep the white minority in power and allow them to have almost total control over the black majority
Balkanization political term used when referring to the fragmentation of a country into smaller regions or countries. The term comes from the Balkan wars, where the country of Yugoslavia was broken up in to 6 countries between 1989 and 1992.effect of the Balkan wars
Border Landscape There are two types, exclusionary and inclusionary. Exclusionary is meant to keep people out, such as the border between the U.S. and Mexico. Inclusionary is meant to facilitate trade and movement, such as the U.S.-Canada border
Boundary disputes Conflicts over the location, size, and extent of borders between nations.conflict over where exactly the border is between the U.S. and Mexico, mainly along the Rio Grande because the river has changed course and moved, and it is the traditional border
Boundary origin Boundaries often originated from old tribal lands and lands won in war. They were meant to establish claims to land and were often smaller historically
Boundary process The process of creating boundaries
Boundary type natural boundaries:formed by geography,also political boundaries:formed through war and treaties countries form cultural boundaries used to belong to cultural homeland. However, countries in Africa &Middle East are arranged by politics
Buffer state A country lying between two more powerful countries that are hostile to each other. An example is Mongolia, which serves as a buffer between Russia and China
Capital Principle city in a state or country. The best place to locate a capital is at the center of a country, so it is a somewhat equal distance from all parts of the country
Centripetal An attitude that unifies people and enhances support for the state
Centrifugal Religious, political, economic, conflict, etc. that causes disunity in a state
City-state A region controlled by a city and that has sovereignty. They were more common in the middle ages and Renaissance in Europe
Colonialism The attempt by a country to establish settlements and impose political and economic control and principles. It was a big thing in the 17th through 20th century for countries in Europe to take areas around the world and make them into colonies
Compact State a state that possesses a roughly circular, oval, or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions
Confederation association of sovereign states by a treaty or agreement. It deals with issues such as defense, foreign affairs, trade, and a common currency
Conference of Berlin Regulated trade and colonization in Africa. It formalized the scramble to gain colonies in Africa and set up boundaries for each country’s colonies
Core/periphery Core countries have high levels of development, a capacity at innovation and a convergence of trade flows. Periphery countries usually have less development and are poorer countries
Decolonization Decolonization is the movement of American/European colonies gaining independence. Some were peaceful struggles while others became violent
Devolution Devolution is the both the decentralization of a government from a unitary to a federal system or a fracturing of a government like Balkanization
Domino theory the idea that if one land in a region came under the influence of Communists, then more would follow in a domino effect.It used by successive United States administrations during the Cold War, to justify American intervention around the world
Exclusive Economic Zone An Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a sea zone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. The country that controls the EEZ has rights to the fishing, whaling, etc., as well as the raw material resources
Electoral regions Electoral regions are the different voting districts that make up local, state, and national regions
Elongated State state whose territory is long and narrow in shape
Enclave/exclave a country or part of a country mostly surrounded by the territory of another country or lying within the boundaries of another country (Lesotho). An exclave is a country geographically separated from the main part by alien territory (Azerbaijan).
Ethnic conflict An ethnic conflict is a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism or fight over natural resources. Ethnic conflict often includes genocide. It can also be caused by boundary disputes
European Union a supranational & intergovernmental union of 27 members in Europe.covers most areas of public policy, from economics to foreign affairs, defense, agriculture.largest political & economic entity on the Euro continent, 500 mil people and GDP of $13.4 tril
Federal Federalism is a political philosophy in which a group or body of members are bound together with a governing representative head. Federalism is the system in which the power to govern is shared between the national & state governments
Forward capital A forward capital is a symbolically relocated capital city usually because of either economic or strategic reasons. A forward capital is sometimes used to integrate outlying parts of a country into the state. An example would be Brasília
Fragmented State state that is not contiguous whole but rather separated parts
Frontier A frontier is a zone where no state exercises complete political control. It is usually uninhabited or sparsely inhabited. It separates countries where a boundary cannot be found. A current example can be found between Saudi Arabia and Yemen
Geopolitics study that analyzes geography, history and social science with reference to international politics. It examines the political and strategic significance of geography, where geography is defined in terms of the location, size, and resources of places
Gerrymander Gerrymandering is the process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the political party in power. The process is usually used to turn “too close to call” states into a party’s favor
Global commons no one person or state may own or control and which is central to life.contains an infinite potential with regard to the understanding and advancement of the biology and society of all life. (Forests, oceans, land mass and cultural identity)
Heartland/rimland Heartland is the central region of a country or continent; especially a region that is important to a country or to a culture. Rimland is the maritime fringe of a country or continent
Immigrant state An immigrant state is a type of receiving state which is the target of many immigrants. Immigrant states are popular because of their economy, political freedom, and opportunity. One example would be the USA
International organization An alliance of two or more countries seeking cooperation with each other without giving up either's autonomy or self-determination
Iron Curtain Geographic separation between the largely democratic and free-market countries of Western Europe and the Americas from the communist and socialist countries of Eastern Europe and Asia
Irredentism A policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a country aimed at a group of its nationals living in a neighboring country
Israel/Palestine Two countries competing for political control of the eastern shore of the Mediterranean in the Middle East
Landlocked state without access to the sea
Law of the Sea (see UNCLOS) Law establishing states' rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources
Lebanon Country in the Middle East that has many conflicting religious and ethnic groups competing for power.
Mackinder, Halford J. found Geopolitics wrote in 1904 The Geographical Pivot of History said control of E Europe was control of world Who rules E Europe commands Heartland Who rules that commands World-Island Who rules that commands His Heartland(Pivot Area)core of Eurasia
Manifest destiny The belief that it is the god given right to take certain land
Microstate A territory that is small both in population and area
Ministate independent country that is very small in area and population
Nation Tightly knit group of individuals sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural attributes.
Nationalism sense of national pride to such an extent of exalting one nation above all others
National iconography the branch of art history which studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images.
Nation-state A country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity
North American Free Trade Agreement Agreement signed on January 1, 1994, that allows the opening of borders between the United States, Mexico, and Canada
North Atlantic Treaty Organization An international organization that has joined together for military purposes
Nunavut the largest and newest federal territory of Canada; it was separated officially from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries An international economic organization whose member countries all produce and export oil
Perforated State A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state
Protruded or Prorupted State A type of territorial shape that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main body of the territory
Raison d’être phrase borrowed from French where it means simply "reason for being"; in English use it also comes to suggest a degree of rationalization, as "The claimed reason for the existence of something or someone" or country
Reapportionment The process of a reallocation of electoral seats to defined territories
Regionalism loyalty to the interests of a particular region
relic boundary boundary that ceases to exist, however the imprint of the boundary still remains on the cultural landscape such as North and South Vietnam
Religious conflict Conflict between two or more religions over a region or territory. Ex: Israel and Palestine
Reunification the act of coming together again. Ex: East and West Germany
Rimland Theory (Nicholas Spykman) Argument that the coastal rim of Eurasia held the key to global power (a counterthesis to Mackinder's heartland thesis): "Who controls the rimland rules Eurasia; Who rules Eurasia controls the destinies of the world."
Satellite state A political term that refers to a country which is formally independent, but under heavy influence or control by another country
Self-determination Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
Shatterbelt A large, strategically located region that is occupied by a number of conflicting states and is caught between the conflicting interests of adjoining Great Powers; a zone of chronic political splintering and fracturing
Sovereignty Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
State An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
Stateless nation A nationality or ethnic group that is not represented by a state
Subsequent Boundary a boundary that developed with the evolution of the cultural landscape and is adjusted as the cultural landscape changes...
Suffrage right to vote. A legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution
Superimposed Boundary a boundary that is imposed on the cultural landscape which ignores pre-existing cultural patterns (typically a colonial boundary)...
Supranationalism a venture involving 3 or more national states political economic or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives
Territorial disputes Any dispute over land ownership
Territorial morphology (compact, fragmented, elongated, prorupt, perforated) a states physical shape. there are five basic shapes, which are compact, prorupted, elongated, fragmented, and perforated
Territoriality a fundamental aspect of human behavior and refers to the need to lay claim to the spaces we occupy and the things we own. In humans it relates to the need for self-identity and freedom of choice
Theocracy Type of government where a religious group is the leader
Treaty ports Ports given to imperial nations in order to trade with countries of the East. Ex: Hong Kong, Macao
UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) defines the rights and responsibilities of nations in their use of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources
Unitary State A state governed constitutionally as a unity, without internal divisions or a federalist delegation of powers
USSR collapse The fall of Communism in 1989
Women’s enfranchisement The right to vote for women. Happened in the United States in 1920
Created by: hmmanly