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test 1

what does the PNS consist of? 12 pairs of cranial and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
what type of neurons carry messages to the brain? from the brain? afferent, efferent
describe a polarized cell a cell with a charge difference on either side
describe the depolarization of a cell cell becomes more positive on the inside and more negative on the outside due to the movement of sodium into the cell
describe the repolarization of a cell the nerve impulse travels, allowing the cell to return to its original state
what structures does the ANS control? cardiac & smooth muscle, glands
how many neurons are in the ANS pathway? 2
how many neurons are in the SNS pathway? 1
is the ANS excitatory or inhibitory? the SNS? both, excitatory
which neurotransmitters does the ANS release? ACh and NE
which neurotransmitter does the SNS release? ACh
the cell bodies of _____________ neurons are in the CNS preganglionic
describe the visceral efferent pathway cell body in CNS->preganglionic fiber->postganglionic neuron->postganglionic fiber->effector
name the true endocrine glands pineal, hypophysis, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenals
name the endocrine tissues heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries, small intestine, testes, placenta, hypothalamus
describe autocrine and paracrine hormones autocrine hormones act on the secreting cell, paracrine hormones act on nearby cells
describe amines comprised of one type of amino acid, water soluble, manufactured in RER
describe P&Ps comprised of many amino acids, water soluble, manufactured in RER
describe steroids derived from cholesterol, lipid soluble, manufactured in SER
describe eicosanoids mimic-like hormones, comprised of fatty acids, derived from arachidonic acid (manufactured in the cell membrane of mammals)
describe the physiology of hormone action cell secretes hormone-> bloodstream-> protein receptor-> protein alteration & enzyme degradation-> alert secreting cell of status
describe target cell receptors specific proteins that accept hormones in a lock-key fit, numerous, up and down-regulate, down-regulation is more common
describe the interaction with cell membrane receptors hormone presence on membrane brings a chemical message-> G protein activation-> adenylate cyclase activation-> ATP split-> ADP release-> cAMP stimulates enzymatic change-> cAMP activates protein kinases-> kinases add free Ps (phosphorylation)
describe the interaction with intracellular receptors hormone attaches to receptor, forming hormone-receptor complex-> binds to chromatin-> alters mRNA-> mRNA carries message to synthesize new protein-> tRNA assembles protein
describe how hormones interact with each other permissively: one paves the way for another, synergistically: work together, antagonistically: one opposes another
this type of feedback has a stimulatory-inhibitory effect negative
this type of feedback has a stimulatory-stimulatory effect positive
describe the three modes of negative feedback controlling hormonal secretions hormonal: hormones control other hormones, humeral: blood levels control hormone secretion, neural:nerve impulses control hormone secretion
name and describe the two hormones secreted by the pineal gland melatonin: induces sleep, inhibits gonadotropic hormones, enhances lymphocytic ability adrenoglomerulotropin: stimulates zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex
name the five troph cells of the adenohypophysis and the hormones they secrete somatotroph:hGH, lactotroph:PRL, thyrotroph:TSH, gonadotroph:FSH and LH, corticotroph:MSH and ACTH
how is troph cell secretion controlled? releasing and inhibiting factors of the hypothalamus
describe what makes a hormone tropic has releasing factors only
describe how regulating factors travel from the hypothalamus to the adenohypophysis low levels-> brain-> hypothalamus-> regulating factor to primary plexus-> hypophyseal portal veins to secondary plexus-> diffusion to bloodstream->adenohypophyseal hormone secreted by troph cell-> diffusion into secondary plexus->anterior hypophyseal vein
describe the inguinal canals openings in the abdomino-pelvic cavity that allow testicular descent, communication with the body proper, and passage of the cremaster muscle
what structures are contained within the spermatic cord? vas deferens, blood and lymph vessels, nerves
describe the tunica albuginea inverts to form 200-300 lobules, which each contain 1-3 seminiferous tubules
describe spermatogenesis spermatogonium-> primary spermatocyte-> secondary spermatocytes-> spermatids-> spermatozoa
describe the epididymis an organ in the posterior testes that serves as the maturation site for spermatozoa (2 weeks). has a head, body, and tail.
describe seminal vesicle fluid 60% of semen, alkaline, increases sperm motility, composed of fructose (ATP), prostaglandins (muscle contraction) & fibrinogen (thickener)
describe prostatic fluid 20-30% of semen, acidic, gives milky appearance, protects from UTIs (seminalplasmin), comprised of coagulating&liquifying enzymes
describe cowper's fluid <5% of semen, alkaline, mucus to protect sperm
describe semen pH 7.2-7.6, composed of sperm, prostatic cowper's and seminal vesicle fluids
describe sperm has a head that dissolves oocyte, neck that produces ATP, and flagellum for movement
describe the hypothalamic hormone that affects the male reproductive system GnRH: regulates the secretion of the gonadotroph (adenohypophyseal) cell
describe the adenohypophyseal hormones that affect the male reproductive system FSH: encourages spermatognesis, LH: increases testosterone
describe inhibin in a male P&P, secreted by nurse cells, temporarily inhibits FSH to decrease spermatogenesis
describe testosterone steroid, secreted by interstital endocrinocytes, maintains sex characteristics and works as a protein anabolist
describe hGH non-tropic P&P, secreted by somatotroph cell, is a lipid/carb catabolist and protein anabolist
what hormone imbalance cause gigantism? too much hGH in children
what hormone imbalance causes acromegaly? too much hGH in adults
what hormone imbalance causes progeria? too little hGH in adults
what hormone imbalance causes dwarfism? too little hGH in children
name the factors that influence and inhibit hGH release influence: high amino acids, low glucose, low fatty acids inhibit: low amino acids, high glucose, high fatty acids
describe PRL non-tropic P&P, secreted by lactotroph cell, acts on alveoli to produce milk
describe how PRL affects males it doesn't, other than erectile dysfunction with hypersecretion
describe how PRL affects females depends on estrogen (increase causes PRL decrease), causes milk production
what does the hyposecretion of PRL cause? decreased milk production, affects only the nursing mother
what does the hypersecretion of PRL cause? erectile dysfunction in men, galactorrhea/amenorrhea/infertility in women
describe TSH tropic P&P, secreted by the thyrotroph cell, stimulates thyroid to produce T3 and T4
describe FSH tropic P&P, controlled by GnRH
describe how FSH affects males and females males: increases spermatogenesis, females: oogenesis, increased estrogen secretion
describe LH tropic P&P, controlled by GnRH
describe how LH affects males and females males: increases testosterone release, females: allows ovulation, increases progesterone and decreases estrogen with pregnancy
describe MSH non-tropic P&P, affects skin pigmentation
describe ACTH tropic P&P, acts on zona fasiculata to increase cortisol secretion, regulated by CRH
describe CRH P&P, neurotransmitter as well as hormone stress-> increase CRH-> increase ACTH-> stimulate zona fasiculata-> increase cortisol
where are neurohypophyseal hormones released into the bloodstream? plexus of infundibular process
describe the formation of T3 and T4 iodine converted to iodide-> blood stream to thyroid-> reconverted to iodine by thyroid peroxidase-> cell lumen to combine with tyrosine-> thyroid hormone
name the protein carrier that allows the transport of T3 and T4 TBG
why might the hypersecretion of ADH occur? tumor, meningitis, neurosurgery, general anesthesia, SIADH
what are oxytocics used for? stimulate contractions, milk letdown, prevent postpartum hemorrhage
what is the carrier protein associated with OT and ADH? neurophysin
describe OT P&P, produced by hypothalamus but secreted by neurohypophysis, stimulates milk letdown, uterine contractions, and prevents postpartum hemorrhage
what issues are associated with the hyposecretion of ADH? head trauma, diabetes insipidus
what factors inhibit ADH? edema, high water intake, caffeine, diuretics
what factors stimulate ADH? dehydration, low blood pressure, low fluid intake
describe ADH P&P, prevents swings in water balance, acts on sweat glands/principal cells of DCT/salivary glands/blood vessels
what secretes CT? parafollicular cells of the thyroid
describe TGB manufactured in the RER of the follicular cells of the thyroid, houses tyrosine
in what disease does hyperthyroidism result and how may it be treated? graves; thyroidectomy, destruction of thyroid tissue, antithyroid drugs
how does hypothyroidism manifest in children? in adults? how can these conditions be treated? cretinism, myxedema; thyroid drugs
describe CT P&P, secreted by C cells of the thyroid, decreases blood calcium by stimulating osteoblastic activity (pulls calcium into cell)
what is the general function of thyroid hormones? organic metabolic balance
describe PTH P&P, increases calcium blood levels, by stimulating osteoclastic activity
describe calcitriol needed for calcium absorption, stimulated by PTH, acts on kidney&GI tract
what causes hyperparathyroidism and how does it manifest? too much blood Ca; bone pain, fatigue, weak contraction, kidney stones, decreased nervous system activity
what causes hypoparathyroidism and how does it manifest? too little blood Ca; bone spurs, twitches, convulsions, respiratory paralysis, death
describe thymosin P&P, produced by the thymus, stimulates maturation of T cells
where are mineralcorticoids manufactured and what is the major one? zona glomerulosa, aldosterone
where are glucocorticoids manufactured and what the the major one? zona fasciculata, cortisol
where are gonadocorticoids manufactured and what is the major one? zona reticularis, testosterone with a little estrogen
describe chromaffin cells modified postganglionic neurons, manufacture and secrete E (80%) and NE (20%) , located near blood sinuses
describe E increases heart rate, sweating, respiratory rate, and glycogenolysis
describe NE influences vasoconstriction
describe the renin-angiotensin pathway low BP-> JGA releases renin-> blood to liver-> renin+angiotensin-> angiotensin 1 to lung-> angiotensin 1+ACE-> angiotensin 2
describe aldosterone steroid, secreted by zona glomerulosa, stimulates sodium resorption and elimination of potassium
what structures does aldosterone act on? sweat glands, salivary glands, gastric secretions, principal cells of DCT
what is the urine tested for when a pheochromocytoma is suspected? VMA
what effects does the formation of angiotensin II have? increases thirst, stimulates ADAH secretion, vasoconstriction, stimulates aldosterone secretion
what stimulates the secretion of aldosterone? low sodium, high potassium
what inhibits the secretion of aldosterone? high sodium, low potassium, ANF
describe ANF P&P, secreted in response to increased atrial blood volume, inhibits ADH and aldosterone to decrease blood volume
what disease is associated with hypoaldosteronism? addison's
describe cortisol steroid, secreted by zona fasiculata, increases blood glucose to combat stress, breaks down carbs and fats to convert to glucose (gluconeogenesis)
describe the control of cortisol secretion stress-> CRH stimulation-> ACTH stimulation->zona fasiculata stimulation-> release
what disease is associated with the hypersecretion of cortisol? cushing's
describe gonadocorticoids steroids, secreted by zona reticularis, contribute to puberty onset
name the three stages of GAS alarm (FFF initiated), resistance (hypothalamic hormone intervention), exhaustion (system collapse)
describe the four types of cells in the islets of langerhans alpha-secretes glucagon; beta-secretes insulin; delta-secretes somatostatin; f cell-secretes pancreatic polypeptide
describe glucagon P&P, raises blood glucose through glycogenolysis, monitored by alpha&beta cells of the pancreas
what stimulates glucagon release? inhibits? low blood glucose; high blood glucose, somatostatin
describe insulin P&P, decreases blood glucose by increasing cellular uptake of glucose
describe somatostatin P&P, inhibits glucagon and insulin to crrate balance, slows GI absorption
describe pancreatic polypeptide P&P, stimulates production of pancreatic juice, influences GI absorption
describe type 1 diabetes caused by not enough functioning beta cells/viruses/auto-immune response, causes weight loss and urine ketones
describe type 2 diabetes down-regulation of insulin receptors, tumor necrosis factor alpha produced by fat-> decreases Glut 4-> decreased cellular uptake
describe hCG P&P, secreted by trophoblast, tells corpus luteum to continue progesterone secretion and halt estrogen secretions to maintain the placenta
describe hCS P&P, secreted by chorion, encourages breast tissue development
describe hCT P&P, secreted by chorion, increases maternal metabolism
describe relaxin P&P, secreted by corpus luteum and placenta, loosens the hips and starts cervical dilation
describe inhibin as related to the female reproductive system P&P, secreted by corpus luteum, inhibits FSH at the end of the period
describe progesterone steroid, secreted by corpus luteum, increases uterine lining and breast development
describe estrogen steroid, secreted by theca cells, maintains sex characteristics, is a protein anabolist, is a water balancer
describe GnRH secreted from hypothalamus, controls gonadotroph cell (PRH and PIH)
describe the mammary glands supported by Cooper's ligament, produces milk in alveoli-> secondary tubules-> mammary ducts-> lactiferous ducts-> nipple
where do the skene's glands lie? surrounding the urethral orifice
describe the blood supply of the uterus aorta-> uterine arteries-> arcuate arteries (perimetrium)-> radial arteries (myometrium)-> straight (stratum basalis) and spiral arteriole(stratum functionalis)
describe the tissue layers of the uterus, outer to inner perimetrium: protection, myometrium: muscle, endometrium: stratum basalis (permanent, manufactures stratum functionalis), stratum functionalis (temporary)
describe the terminal ganglia serviced by parasympathetic preganglionic neurons of the craniosacral division
describe the prevertebral ganglia serviced by sympathetic preganglionic neurons of the thoracolumbar division
describe the sympathetic trunks vertical to the sides of the vertebral column, run from the skull to the coccyx
Created by: mhaye26