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Glands & Tissues


Simple squamous epithelium Found in serous membranes (peritoneum, pleura, and pericardium)
Simple cuboidal epithelium Found in kidney tubules and thyroid gland. (Pancreas, and parafollicular cells)
Simple columnar epithelium Found in major parts of GI tract, and features mucus producing goblet cells. Uterine tube is covered by ciliated simple columnar epithelium, which helps move the tube contents in specific directions (fallopian tubes).
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Respiratory airways are covered by psudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. Trachea tissue.
Non-kerantinized stratified squamous epithelium Found in the esophagus and vagina. Consists of 3 layers.
Stratified keratinizing epithelium Skin. Epidermis of skin consists of 5 layers.
Stratified columnar epithelium Found in the urethra and in large ducts of the glands.
Stratified cuboid epithelium Found in ducts of the salivary and mammary glands
Transitional epithelium (urothelium) Characterizes the ureter and urinary bladder and some parts of the urethra. Stratified cuboidal epithelium with an apical layer. Becomes umbrella-shaped cells when compressed by the urine in the bladder.
Exocrine Glands Secrete product outside the body, usually through a duct. 3 Types.
Apocrine glands The secretion is mixed with some destructed cellular parts. Example: Mammary gland.
Merocrine glands is usually a pure secretion. Example: pancreas (pancreas is also an endocrine gland).
Holocrine glands The secretion is mixed with disintegrate cellular parts so that the sensory cells disintegrate completely, and new secretory cells appear at their sites. Example: sebaceous glands, like hair follicles.
Connective tissue 4 classes. Connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone, and the blood.
Loose areolar connective tissue Most widespread connective tissue, surrounds capillaries and underlies most epithelia.
Adipose connective tissue (Loose) Matrix that is full of fat cells. Found in the breast, around the kidneys and in other places in the abdomen.
Reticular connective tissue Found in spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes.
Dense irregular connective tissue Found in fibrous joint capsule, dermis, and submucosa.Consists of fiber that goes in a lot of directions.
Dense regular connective tissue Found in ligaments and tendons. Fibers are parallel. Nuclei of fibroblasts is in between them.
Hyaline cartilage Strong tissue, develops from chondrocytes. Forms the costal cartilages, found in the bone joint surfaces, epiphyseal plates, and embryonic skeleton.
Elastic cartilage Yellowish is color. Found in the auricle (ear), epiglottis (trachea), and other cartilages of the larynx. Twin houses, make twin cells.
Fibrocartilage Matrix of thick collagen fivers, but is less firm than hyaline cartilage, has fewer chondrocytes. Found in the symphysis pubis and intervertebral discs.
Scurvy caused by Vitamin C deficiency. Vitamin C is necessary for cross-linking of collagen units, and deficiency, leads to weak connective tissue. Which leads to rupture of blood vessels, which results in bleeding from the gums or other tissues.
Skeletal muscle Connected to muscle, are voluntarily controlled, and make up 40% of body weight. Have long, multinuclear striated cells.
Cardiac muscle Cells are branching, uninuclear, and striated, and interdigitate at the intercalated discs (junctions). Found in the walls of the hear, and its contraction is responsible for pumping activity and squeezing of blood into the great vessels.
Smooth muscle Cells are spindle-shaped, feature on nucleus in the center, and lack striations. Found in the walls of hollow organs, and their contractions may help propel the contents of that organ (ex. contraction of the intestine), may have other functions.
Osteoblasts cells that make bone and become osteocytes. When bone forms around them they become lacuna.
Nervous Tissue Consists of neurons, which are excitable cells and glial cells which are non excitable cells.
Glial cells Non-excitable cells. Have a supporting function. (4 types in the central nervous system, 2 types in the peripheral nervous system)
Astrocytes Glail cell. Supports the neurons.
Oligodendrocytes Glial cell. Forms the myalin sheath around the central axons. CNS
Microglial cells Glial cell. Involved in immune function. CNS
Ependymal cells Glial cells. Line the brain ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. CNS
Neurons Excitable cells. Impulse producing cells able to generate and propogate impulse across the axon. CNS
Schwann cells Produces the myelin sheath. PNS
Satellite cells Surround the neuronal cell bodies within the sensory ganglia.
Continuous (synarthroses) joints Movement is not possible. Ex. gomphosis which is teeth and gum joint, and interrosseous membrane. 2 types of continuous joints.
Fibrous (syndesmosis) joints Continuous joint. Interrousseous membrane, gomphosis and ligamentum flavum are an examples.
Cartilaginous (synchondrosis) joints Continuous joint. 2 types. Primary= include hyaline cartilage that lie between the bones (ex. epiphyseal plates). Secondary= fibrocartilage lies between them (ex. intervertebral discs and the symphysis)
Discontinuous (diarthroses) joints Synovial joints. Consist of a capsule articule surfaces, and a joint cavity.
Hinge joint joints are monoaxial, one degree of freedom. Example= interphalangeal or ankle joints. Movements include flexion and extention.
Pivot (trochoid) joints monoaxial, one degree of freedome. Example= the proximal and distal radioulnar joints. Movements include supination and pronation.
Ellipsoidal joints joints are muliaxial (two principle axes) and have 2 degrees of freedom. Example is radiocarpal joint. Movement includes: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction (combination of movements)
Saddle (sellar) joints Joints are multiaxial, 2 degrees of freedom. Example is the first carpometacarpal joint (of the thumb). Movements include: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction (combination of movements). No rotation, rotation would break the thumb.
Ball-and-socket joints Multiaxial and have all 3 degrees of freedom. Example is the hip joint and shoulder joint. Movements include: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial rotation, lateral rotation, and circumduction.
Sternoclavicular joint Saddle in type but acts as a ball and socket because of the articular surface
Amphiarthrosis Continuous, slightly moveable joint. (brain joint)
Humeroradia joint ball and socket in shape, but doesn't function so it is a hinge joint.
Radiocarpal joint of the wrist an ellipsoid type of the synovial joint.
Created by: lindsayvirdee



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