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Sociolog

QuestionAnswer
Ideology a system of concepts and relationships,an understanding of cause and effect.
Cultural Relativism Taking into account the differences across cultures without passing judgment or assigning values
Ethnocentrism The belief that one’s own culture or group is superior to others and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one’s own.
Material Culture Everything that is a part of our constructed physical environment, including technology.
Nonmaterial Culture Values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms.
Cultural Scripts Modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural.
Culture a set of beliefs,traditions,and practices;the sum total of of social categories and concepts we embrace in addition to beliefs,behaviors,and practices;that which is not the natural environment around us.
Subculture a group united by sets of concepts,values,symbols,and shared meaning specific to the members of that group distinctive enough to distinguish it from others the same culture or society.
Values moral beliefs
Norms how values tell us to behave
Socialization the process by which individuals internalize the values,beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as members of that society.
Reflection theory the idea that culture is a projection of social structures and relationships into the public sphere, a screen onto which the film of the underlying reality or social structures of our society is projected.
Media any formats or vehicles that carry,present,or communicate information.
Hegemony a condition by which a dominant group uses its power to elicit the voluntary"consent"or the masses.
Consumerism the steady acquisition of material possessions.often with the belief that happiness and fulfillment can thus be achieved.
Culture jamming the act of turning media against themselves.
Female circumcision the removal of a woman's sexulally sesitive clitoris.
Feminism an intellectual,consiousness-raising movement to get people to understand that gender is organizing principle of life.
Sex the biological differeces that distinguish male from female.
Sexuality refers to desire,sexual preference,sexual identity ,and behavior.
Gender denotes a social position,the set of social arrangements,that are built around sex categories.
Essentialism line of thought that explains social phenomena in terms of natural ones.
Biological determinism a line of thought that explains social behavior in tems of biological givens.
Hegemonic masculinity dominant and privileged,if invisible,category of men.
Gender roles sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one's status as a male of female.
Patriarchy a nearly universal system involving the subordination of femininity to masculinity.
Structural functionalism theoretical tradition claiming that every society has certain structures,which exist in order to fulfill some set of functions.
Sex role theory Talcott Parsons's theory that men and women perform their sex roles as breadwinners and wives/mothers,respectively,because the nuclear family is the ideal arrangement in modern societies,fulfilling the function of reproducing workers.
Homesexual the social identity of a person who has sexual attraction to and/or relations with other persons of the same sex.
Sexism occurs when a person's sex or gender is the basis for judgement,discrimination,and hatred against him or her.
Glass ceiling an invisible limit on women's climb up the occupationa ladder.
Created by: nstella
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