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Chapters 2 + 3 (Chemical and Cellular)

Where are triglycerides stored? Fatty Tissue
What is the most highly concentrated form of chemical energy? Triglycerides
What is the chemical makeup of triglycerides? 3 fatty acid chains with a glycerol backbone
What is the chemical makeup of phospholipids? Two fatty acid chains, a phosphate group, and a charged functional group
What is a main component of the plasma membrane? Phospholipids
What elements make up proteins? Cartbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
How many different types of amino acids exist? 20
Describe the appearance of an alpha helix. Clockwise twists
Describe the appearance of beta pleated sheets. Repeated folding
How do enzymes affect reactions? Lower activation energy and allow reactions to proceed more quickly
What is ATP? Energy currency of the cell
What are the three principal parts of a cell? Plasma membrane, Cytoplasm, Nucleus
What does the plasma membrane do? Separates inside of the cell from the outside
What is the fluid mosaic model? Portrays the molecular arrangement of the plasma membrane as an ever-moving sea of fluid lipids that contains a mosaic of many different proteins.
What is the basic structural framework of the plasma membrane? Lipid Bilayer
What are the three types of lipid molecules? Phospholipids, cholesterol, and glycolipids.
What are lipids that contain phosphate groups and make up about 75% of the membrane lipids? Phospholipids
What is the polar (water-loving) part of a phospholipid? Hydrophilic head
What is the nonpolar (water-hating) part of a phospholipid? Hydrophobic tail
What is the lipid bilayer portion of the membrane permeable to? Nonpolar, uncharged molecules, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and steroids
What is a passive process in which the random mixing of particles in a solution occurs because of the particle's kinetic energy? Diffusion
Which membrane protein extends into or through the lipid bilayer among the fatty acid trails and are firmly embedded in it? Integral proteins
Which of the membrane proteins are not firmly embedded in the membrane and associate more loosely with the polar heads of membrane lipids? Peripheral proteins
What is a protein with carbohydrate groups attached to the ends that protrude into the extracellular fluid? Glycoproteins
What acts as a molecular "signature" that enables cells to recognize one another? Glycocalyx
What are pores or holes through which specific ions can flow to get into or out of the cell? Ion channels
What integral proteins change shape to selectively move a substance or ion from one side of a membrane to the other? Transporters
Which integral protein serve as cellular recognition sites? Receptors
What are integral proteins catalyze specific chemical reactions at the inside or outside surface of the cell? Enzymes
What can enable a cell to recognize other cells of the same kind during tissue formation or to recognize and respond to potentially dangerous foreign cells? Cell Identity Markers
How does the steepness of the concentration gradient influence the diffusion rate of substances across the plasma membrane? The greater the difference in concentration between the two sides of the membrane, the higher the rate of diffusion.
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion? The higher the temperature, the faster the rate of diffusion.
How does the mass of the diffusing substance affect the rate of diffusion? The larger the mass of the diffusing particle, the slower its diffusion rate.
How does surface area affect the rate of diffusion? The larger the membrane surface area available for diffusion, the faster the diffusion rate.
How does diffusion distance affect the rate of diffusion? The greater the distance over which diffusion must occur, the longer it takes.
What can diffuse freely through the lipid bylayer of the plasma membranes of cells without the help of membrane transport proteins? Nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules such as O, CO2, N, fatty acids, steroids, and fat-soluble vitamins.
What do integral, transmembrane proteins form that allow passage of small, inorganic ions that are too hydrophilic to penetrate the nonpolar interior of the lipid bilayer? Ion channels
What is a passive process that is the net movement of a solvent through a selectively permeable membrane, moving plasma membranes from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration? Osmosis
The measure of the solution's ability change the volumne of cells by altering their water content is called what? Tonicity
Any solution in which a cell maintains its normal shape and volume is what? Isotonic solution
A solution that causes cells shrink due to loss of water by osmosis? Hypertonic solution
What is a solution that causes water molecules to enter cells faster than they can leave, causing red blood cells to swell? Hypotonic solution
How do solutes that are too polar or highly charged to diffuse through the lipid bilayer and too big to diffuse through membrane channels cross the plasma membrane? Facilitated diffusion
How do polar or charged solutes that cannot cross the plasma membrane through any form of passive transport cross the membrane? Active transport
In what process does energy derived from hydrolysis of ATP change the shape of a transporter protien, pumpking a substance across a plasma membrane against its concentration gradient? Primary active transport
In what process does the energy stored in a Na+ or H+ conenctration gradient used to drive other substances across the membrane against their own concentration gradients? Secondary active transport
During what process do materials move into a cell in a vesicle formed from the plasma membrane? Endocytosis
In what process do materials move out of a cell by the fusion with the plamsa membrane of vesicles formed inside the cell? Exocytosis
What is a highly selective type of endocytosis by which cells take up specific ligands (molecules that bind to specific receptors)? Receptormediated endocytosis
What is a form of endocytosis in which the cell engulfs large solid particles, such as worn-out cells, whole bacteria, or viruses? Phagocytosis
What vesicle transport system releases materials from a cell? Exocytosis
In what vesicle transport system do vesicles undergo endocytosis on one side of a cell, move across the cell, and then undergo exocytosis on the opposite side? Transcytosis
What is the fluid portion of the cytoplasm that surrounds organelles and constitutes about 55% of total cell volume? Cytosol (intracellular fluid)
What are specialized structures within the cell that have characteristic shapes and perform specific functions in cellular growth, maintenance, and reproduction? Organelles
What is a network or protein filaments that extends throughout the cytosol? Cytoskeleton
What are the thinnest elements of the cytoskeleton are composed of the protein actin and are most prevalent at the periphery of a cell? Microfilaments
What are nonmotile, microscopic fingerlike projections of the plasma membrane that greatly increase the surface area of the cell? Microvilli
What organelle is exceptionally strong, found in parts of the cells subject to mechanical stress, help stabilize the position of organelles, and help attach cells to one another? Intermediate filaments
What is the largest of the cytoskeletal components that help determine cell shape? Microtubules
What organelles are composed of a pair of centrioles, composed of microtubules, and important for cell division? Centrosomes
What numerous, short, hairlike projections that extend from the surface of the cell? Cilia
What are similar in structure cilia but longer and are able to move an entire cell? Flagella
What is the only example of flagellum in the human body? Sperm
What organelles are the sites of protein synthesis? Ribosomes
What organelles is a network of membranes in the form of flattened sacs or tubules? Endoplasmic Reticulum
What organelle is continuous with the nuclear membrane and usually folded into a series of flattened sacs studded with ribosomes and is responsible for protein synthesis, processing, and sorting? Rough ER
What organelle extends from the rough ER to form a network of membrane tubules and contains unique enzymes that synthesize fatty acids and steroids? Smooth ER
What organelle receives proteins synthesized on rough ER then modifies, sorts and packages? Golgi Complex
What are small, flattened membranous sacs and two surfaces, one with entry face on rough ER surface and one with exit face on plasma membrane surface? Cisternae
What are membrane-enclosed vesicles that form from the Golgi complex? Lysosomes
What group of organelles contain several oxidases that can oxidize substances and toxins? Peroxisomes
What organelles are referred to as the powerhouse of the cell because they produce ATP? Mitochondria
What organelle contains DNA ? Nucleus
What is a double membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm? Nuclear envelope
What are the many openings that extend through the nuclear envelope and control the movement of substances between the nucleus and the cytoplasm? Nuclear pores
What are the spherical bodies inside the nucleus that function in production ribosomes? Nucleoli (Nucleolus)
What are the hereditary unites located in the nucleus which control cellular structure and direct cellular activities? Genes
What are highly coiled and folded molecules of DNA and proteins associated with it? Chromosomes
What are the threadlike masses of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus? Chromatin
In what process is DNA copied and passed to RNA? Transcription
In what process do the nucleotide sequence in an mRNA molecule specify the amino acid sequence that forms a particular protein molecule? Translation
In what phase of the mitotic cycle do chromatin fibers condense into paired chromatids, the nucleolus and nuclear envelope disappear, and the controsome moves to an opposite pole of the cell? Prophase
In what phase of the mitotic cycle do centromeres of chromatid pairs line up at metaphase plate? Metaphase
In what phase of the mitotic cycle do centromeres split and identical sets of chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell? Telophase
In what phase of the mitotic cycle does the cytoplasm divide and cleavage furrow around the center of the cell dividing the cytoplasm into separate and equal portions? Cytokinesis
In what phase of the mitotic cycle is the period between cell divisions? Interphase
How many chemical elements exist, and how many are naturally occuring? 112 elements, 92 occur naturally
Can you break apart cheimcal elements by ordinary chemical means? No
How many chemical elements are normally present in the human body? 26
What are the smallest units of matter that retain the properties and characteristics of an element? Atoms
What is the charge of an atom with an equal number of protons and electrons? Zero
What depicts the number of protons in an atom? Atomic number
In an atom, what is the sum of its protons and neutrons? Mass number
What are atoms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different pass numbers? Isotopes
What is an element that loses or gains electrons? Ions
What is an ion that gains electrons and has a negative charge? Anion
What is an ion that loses electrons and has a positive charge? Cation
What are the forces that hold atoms together? Chemical bonds
What kind of bond connects ions of opposite charges and often dissolve in water and can conduct electricity? Ionic bonds
What bonds chare electrons? Covalent bonds
What type of covalent bond shares electrons unequally? Polar (leads to partial charges)
What type of covalent bond shares electrons equally? Non-polar
Does oxygen or Hydrogen attract more electrons? Oxygen
What type of bond forms when a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge attracts the partial negative charge of neighboring electronegative atoms? Hydrogen bonds
Which is the weakest: ionic bond, covalent bond, or hydrogen bond? Hydrogen bond
What occurs when new bonds form or exisitng bonds break between atoms? Chemical reactions
What is energy stored by matter due to its position? Potential energy
What is energy associated with matter in motion? Kinetic energy
What type of chemical reaction releases more energy than it absorbs? Exergonic reactions
What type of chemical reaction asborbs more energy than they release? Endergonic reactions
What increases the reaction rates in chemical reactions? Catalysts
What is a liquid or gas in which the solutes of a solution disolve? Solvent
What is a solute that is charged or contains polar covalent bonds and dissolve in water? Hydrophilic
What are molecules with nonpolar covalent bonds that are not water-soluble? Hydrophobic
Do acidic solutions have more H+ or OH- ? H+
What systems in body fluids convert strong acids or bases into weak acids and bases? Buffer systems
What are chemical compounds that help stabilize the pH of a solution by adding or removing protons since most body fluids need to remain within narrow limits? Buffers
What are large carbon-based molecules that carry out complex functions in living systems? Organic molecules
What are the four main types of organic molecules? Cabohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
What organic molecule functions has a building block and source of energy and includes sugars, starches, glycogen, and cellulose? Carbohydrates
What chemical elements make up carbohydrates? Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
What are nonpolar organic molecules important for cell membrane structure, energy storage, and hormone production? Lipids
What kind of fats are usually solid at room temperature and contain only single covalent bonds between fatty acid carbon atoms? Saturated fats
What type of fat contains fatty acids with one double covalent bonds between fatty acid carbon atoms? Monounsaturated fats
What kind of fat contains more than one double covalent bond between fatty acid carbon atoms? Polyunsaturated fats
Most catalysts in body cells are protein molecules called what? Enzymes
Each nucleotide in DNA consists of what three parts? Nitrogenous bases, sugars, and a phosphate group
What are the three types of RNA? Messenger (traveling copy of a gene), Ribosomal RNA (joins with ribosomal proteins to make ribosomes), and Transfer RNA (binds to an amino acid and holds it in place)
What is the principal energy-transferring molecule in living systems? ATP
In what mitotic stage do centromeres split and identical sets of chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell? Anaphase
During what mitotic phase do nuclear envelopes and nucleoli reappear, chromosomes resume chromatin form, and mitotic spindle disappears? Telophase
What is the study of internal and external structures of the body and the physical relationship among those structures? Anatomy
What is the study of how organisms perform their vital functions? Physiology
Is the sum of all chemical processes? Metabolism
What is the breaking down of complex molecules into simpler ones? Example? Catabolism. Example: Digestion
What is the building of complex molecules from simpler ones? Example? Anabolism. Example: Building proteins from amino acids
What is the ability to detect and respond to changes? Responsiveness
What system protects the body, helps regulate body termperature, eliminates some wastes, and detects sensations? Integumentary System
Which system supports and protects the body, provides a surface for muscle, aids body movements, and houses cells that produce blood cells? Skeletal System
What system produces body movements such as walking, stabilizes body position, and generates heat? Muscular system
What system generates action potentials to regulate body activities, detects changes in the body's internal and external environment, interprets the changes, and responds by causing muscular contractions or grandular secretions? Nervous System
What body system regulates body activities by releasing hormones? Endocrine System
What system pumps blood through blood vessels? Cardiovasular System
Which system returns proteins and fluid to blood, carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood? Lymphatic system
Which system transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air, helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids, and helps produce sound? Respiratory system
Which system achieves physical and chemical breakdown of food, absorbs nutrients, and eliminates solid wastes? Digestive system
Which system produces, stores, and eliminates urine, eliminates wastes and regulates volume and cheimcal composition of blood, maintains body's mineral balance, and helps regulate production of red blood cells? Urinary system
Which system produces gametes that unite to form a new organism? Reproductive system
What are some main components of the integumentary system? Hair, nails, skin, sweat glands
What are some main component of the skeletal system? Bones and joints
What are some main components of the muscular system? Muscles
What are some main components of the nervous system? Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and special sense organs such as eyes and ears
What are some main components of the endocrine system? Pineal gland, pituitary gland, thymus, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancrease, ovaries, and testes
What are some main components of the cardiovascular system? Heart, blood, and blood vessels
What are some main components of the lymphatic system? Lymphatic fluid and vessels, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils
What are some main components of the respiratory system? Lungs, trachea, larynx, pharynx, bronchus
What are some main components of the digestive system? Mouth, salivary gland, pharynx, esophagus, liver, stomach, gallbladder, pancreas, large intestine, anus
What are some main components of the urinary system? Bladder, kidneys, ureters, urethra
What are some main components of the reproductive system? Testes, Ovaries, Vagina, Penis, Fallopian tubes, seminal vesicles, prostates, mammary glands
What basic life process includes motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and even organelles? Movement
What basic life process is an increase in body size? Growth
What basic life process is the process in which unspecialized cells become specialized? Differentiation (ex. stem cells)
What basic life process refers to either the formation of new cells or the production of a new individual? Reproduction
What structural level includes atoms? Chemical
What structural level includes cells? Cellular level
What structural level deals with groups of cells and material surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function? Tissue level
At what structural level do different kinds of tissues join together to form body structures? Organ level
At what structural level do related organ with similar functions work together? System level
At what structural level is the attention on all the parts of the human body functioning together? Organismal level
What is the maintenance of relatively stable conditions in the body's internal environment? Homeostasis
What condition occurs when the blood glucose level is too high? Hyperglycemia
What condition occurs when the glucose level is too low? Hypoglycemia
How does the body maintain homeostasis? Feedback
What is a body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input to a control system? Receptor
In a feedback system, what sets the range of values within which a condition should be maintained, evaluates the input it receives, and generates output commands when needed? Control Center
What is a cycle of evens in which the status of a body condition is continually monitored, evaluated, changed, remonitored, reevaluated, and so on? Feedback System
What type of feedback system reverses changes? Negative feedback
What kind of feedback system reinforces changes? Positive feedback
What is a body structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response or an effect that changes the controlled condition? Effector
What is an abnormality of structure and/or function? Disorder
What is an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms? Disease
In terms of homeostasis, what are objective changes that can be measured? Signs
In terms of homeostasis, what are subjective changes not apparent to an observer? Symptoms
If someone is laying on their stomach, what anatomical position are they in? Prone
If someone is laying on their back, what anatomical position are they in? Supine
What directional term means "same side?" Ipsilateral
What directional term means "opposite side?" Contralateral
Which plane divides the body into right and left sides? Sagittal
Which planes divide the body or organ into front and back portions? Frontal and Coronal
Which plane divides the body into upper and lower portions? Transverse plane
Which plan passes through the body at an angle? Oblique plane
Which cavity contains the brain? Cranial cavity
Which cavity is formed by the bones of the backbone and contains the spinal cord? Vertebral cavity
Which cavity contains pleural and peridcardial cavities and mediastinum? Thoracic cavity
Which cavity surrounds the lung? Pleural cavity
Which cavity surrounds the heart? Pericardial cavity
What is the central portion of the thoracic cavity between the heart and lungs that contains the heart, thymusk, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels? Mediastinum
Which cavity contains the stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of the large intestine? Abdominal cavity
Which cavity contains the urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine, and reproductive organs? Pelvic cavity
What are thin, slippery double-layered membranes that cover the viscera within the thoracic and abdominal cavities and line the walls of the thorax and abdomen, secreting fluid to reduce friction? Serous membranes
Which layer of the serous membranesline the walls of the cavities? Parietal layer
Which layer of the serous membranes cover and adheres to the organs within the cavities? Visceral layer
What is the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity? Peritoneum
What is the serous membrane of the pericardial cavity? Pericardium
What is the serous membrane of the pleural cavities? Pleura
What is an examination by touch? Palpation
What is an examination by listening to sounds in the body? Auscultation
What is the act of striking an underlying part of the body with short, sharp taps as an aid in diagnosing the part by the quality of the sound produced? Percussion
What kind of reaction is occuring when reactions break down large molecules into smaller molecules by adding water molecules? Hydrolysis
What reaction is occuring when two smaller molecules join to form a larger molecule and water is a product produced? Dehydration synthesis
What kind of cell is anything other than a gamete and divides by mitosis? Somatic cell
What is an abnormal cell growth? Tumor
What kind of genes can lead to cancer and control the cell cycle? Oncogenes
What type of gene prevents cell division in cells with damaged DNA? Tumor suppressor genes
Created by: jgold37