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ChiroBoards3: GI and Abdomen

Early intestinal obstruction = increased/decreased Bowel sounds? increased
late intestinal obstruction = increased/decreased Bowel sounds? absent (adynamic/paralytic ileus)
Vomiting up blood, aka Hematesis
coughin up blood, aka Hemoptysis
blood in stool, aka hematochesia
Non-specific liver markers = Alk phosphatase (increase); SGOT/AST; LDH
Classic liver markers = GGT; SGPT/ALT
Markers of MI = (3) CPK; SGOT/AST; LDH
BUN seen with two organ dysfunctioning = Liver (low BUN from processing issue) ; Kidney (high BUN from clearance issue)
Most common cause of liver destruction (cirrhosis) = alcoholism
All of these listed can be seen with this liver condition = portal hypertension, ascites, esophageal varices, Mallory Weiss syndrome, and PALMER RASH (due to bile salts). Cirrhosis
Coughing, tearing esophageal blood vessels, and hematemesis indicates what condition? Mallory Weiss syndrome
Thiamin deficiency without alcoholism = Beri Beri
Thiamine deficiency in the brain = Wernicke Korsakoff Syndrome (leads to dementia)
Liver may be tender and enlarged. BUT the edge remains soft and smooth = Hapatitis
From food through fecal/oral route, self limiting, not a carrier = which hepatitis? A
M/C hepatitis? A
Dirty needles and sexual contact; carrier for life = which hepatitis? B
M/C to become liver cancer B
Blood transfusions = which hepatitis? C
M/C site for metastatic disease = liver
How does the liver present with cancer? Enlarged, with a hard irregular border
Alpha fetoprotein is a tumor marker specific for what? hepatocellular carcinoma
What is done to confirm hepatocellular carcinoma following a positive alpha fetoprotein blood test? liver biopsy
biliary duct obstruction increases which? conjugated or unconjugated bilirubin? Conjugated
which type of bilirubin is not water soluble? unconjugated
Which bilirubin increases with duct obstruction, hepatic dx, and pancreatic cancer conjugated
conjugated bilirubin increases with 3 scenarios: duct obstruction, hepatic dx, and pancreatic cancer
Which billirubin can cause urobilinogen (bilirubin in urine) if increased? Both
Which bilirubin increases with hemolytic dx, drugs, and spleen disorders? unconjugated
3 scenarios that will increase unconjugated bilirubin? hemolytic dx, drugs, and spleen disorders
Increased reticulocyte count occurs in this condition = hemolytic anemia
What tests for hemolytic anemia? (reticulocyte count) Coomb's test
Pain referral to right shoulder or tip of right scapula = gallbladder (viscerosomatic)
Cholecystitis: most common demographic overweight females over 40
Cholecystitis: most common cause = cholelithiasis
Cholecystitis: Tests Diagnostic ultrasound; oral cholecystogram; Murphy's sign, Inspiratory arrest Sign
Gallbladder calcification that can become malignant due to chronic inflammation Porcelain Gallbladder
Epigastric pain going straight through the T10-T12 area like a knife = pancreatitis (Viscerosomatic)
Chronic pancreatitis most common cause = alcoholism
Acute pancreatitis a 911 emergency = T/F ? true
Grey Turner sign bleeding into flanks
Periumbilical ecchymosis is known as = Cullen's sign
Pancreatitis: Labs Increased amylase and lipase
What part of pancreas does cancer most commonly attack? the head
What does pancreatic cancer present with? (3) dark urine, clay colored stools, and jaundice
polydypsia, polyphagia, and polyuria is seen with this common condition = DM
Tests glucose levels over a 3 month time period = HbA1C
condition of posterior pituitary, resulting in insufficient ADH production Diabetes Insipidus
30% correlation between diabetes insipidus and what skeletal condition seen on xray? DISH
protrusion of stomach above the diaphragm hiatal hernia
presents with palpable tenderness in LUQ, reflex esophagitis, dyspepsia (indigestion), and made worse after eating large meal or laying down = condition? Hiatal hernia
Upward reflux of acid contents of the stomach into the esophagus Reflux Esophagitis
Reflux Esophagitis is caused by what physical condition? sliding hiatal hernia
Destruction of esophagus due to reflux esophagitis (cancer precursor) = Barrett's Esophagus
Caused by H. pylori and causes pain when waking, coffee ground emesis, and burning epiagastric pinpoint pain = Peptic Ulcers
Has no consistent pain pattern, though sometimes food causes the pain, and other times it relieves the pain = condition? gastric ulcer
This condition causes pain 2 hours after eating and causes black/tarry stool = Duodenal ulcer
Most common type of peptic ulcer = Duodenal ulcer
tests occult blood in stool = Guaiac Test
Causes projectile vomiting in a newborn = pyloric stenosis
Most common on the lesser curvature of stomach and affects the left supraclavicular lymph node Stomach cancer
which node does stomach cancer affect? left supraclavicular lymph node (Virchow's node)
left supraclavicular lymph node, aka = Virchow's node
Mononucleosis is caused by what virus? Epstein Barr Virus
Mononucleosis demopgraphic = young adults (18-25yoa)
Special test for mononucleosi = Paul Bunnell test
Paul Bunnel test (mononuc.), aka's = (2 more) Monospot; Heterophile Agglutination
presents with symptoms similar to the flue such as fever, headache, fatigue, lymphadenopathy in cervicals, and splenomegaly = Mononucleosis
Osteopetrosis, aka = Marble bone
Bone marrow becomes sclerotic so red blood cells aren't made. The liver and spleen make rbc's and become enlarged = what condition? Osteopetrosis
This organ's referral pain is to the peri-umbilical area = Small-Intestines
Gas in the intestines = Adynamic ileus
Regional ileus, aka = Crohn's dx
Crohn's more common in males or females? females
nonspecific inflammatory dx that affects the distal ileum and colon. Crohn's
Inflammation is patchy with healthy tissue in bewtween; which is referred to as cobblestone appearance = what condition? Crohn's
Crohn's dx causes poor absorption of this vitamin B12
What symptoms can Crohn's present with? (2) Presents with RLQ pain and chronic diarrhea
Crohn's dx can lead to what kind of syndromes? malabsorption syndromes (tropical spruce/celiac's)
How is Crohn's diagnosed? Sigmoidoscopy
bilateral SI effusion on X-ray = Sacroiliitis
Sacroiliitis occurs with what gut condition? Enteropathic Arthritis
Irritable Bowel Syndrome, aka = Spastic colon
IBS causes degrees of constipations/diarrhea in response to __________ stress
IBS = more common in men or women? womrn
Abdominal pain and gas is relieved by what? in IBS bowel movements
Dull periumbilical pain that radiates to lower right quadrant occurs in what condition? Appendicitis
Dull periumbilical pain that radiates to lower right quadrant = Test name? McBurney's point
Increased WBC (Shilling shift to the left) = what condition? Appendicitis
Appendicitis = Exam tests = McbBurney's Point, Rebound Tenderness (peritonitis), Roving's sign, Psoas sign, Obturator sign
Special test for Appendicitis = CT Scan
chronic constipation causes small outpouchings within colon that becomes infected = condition? Diverticulitis
Diverticulitis occurs as a consquence of what inadequecy in the person's diet? Fiber
Diverticulitis is associated with pain in which quadrant? LLQ
Outpouching of the ileum = Meckel's Diverticulitis
Outpouching of Esophagus Zenker's Diverticulitis
Cancer of intestine that metastasizes to the liver, causing a release of liver enzymes in circulation and causes flushing in the face. Carcinoid syndrome
Cushing's dx = what specific part of this organ is directly related = adrenal cortex
Increased production of adrenal cortex hormones = hyperadrenalism and hypercortisolism (what condition?) Cushing's
What dx causes hypercortisolism and hyperadrenalism? Cushing's
Decreased aldosterone, hypoadrenalism, and hypocortisolism = what condition? Addison's
Thin person, decreased bp, hyperpigmented mouth and face, weakness, fatigue, lethargy, vomiting, and hairloss seen in the condition = Addison's
Grey Cell tumor of the adrenal medulla = condition? Pheochromocytoma
What neurotransmitter is increased in pheochromocytoma? epinephrine
causes tachycardia, jitters, and EXTREME HYPERTENSION (s&s similar to hyperthyroidism) Pheochromocytoma
Nephrolithiasis's are made of = calcium = calcium oxalates (M/C), calcium urates, calcium phosphates
Back pain radiating into the groin. (pain is writhing) = cause? ureter stones
What ortho tests for nephrolithiasis murphy's punch test
Lab tests for nephrolithiasis = (3) increased BUN, Uric acid, Creatinine clearance
Best lab test for nephrolithiasis Creatinine Clearance
Most common cause is hydronephrosis due to kidney stone = Staghorn calculi (stone inside kidney)
Acute glomerulonephritis, aka Nephritic syndrome
Bacterial cause for nephritic syndrome = Caused by group A hemolytic strep (strep pyogenes-ASO titre)
RBC casts in urine with small amounts of protein is seen with = acute glomerulonephritis (Nephritic syndrome)
HEP stands for = hypertension, edema, massive proteinuria
Waxy or fatty casts seen in urine with = what condition? Nephrotic syndrome
HEP is seen in what syndrome? Nephrotic syndrome
What is nephrotic syndrome called in pregnant women? pre-eclampsia
E-coli from UTI can cause what kidney disorder? pyelonephritis
This kidney disorder has WBC casts o UA ? pyelonephritis
Inherited disorder characterized by many bilateral renal cysts that increase renal size but reduce functional renal tissue = Polycystic kidney disease
Urethritis = caused by which bacteria in both males and females = E coli in females; N. Gonorrhea in males
nitirites in the urine in what particular -itis? urethritis
Non-infectious bladder inflammation that causes burning, painful, and frequent urination with incontinence. PAtient will also have suprapubic pain and low back pain = Cystitis
Nephroblastoma, aka = Wilm's tumor
Malignant tumor of the kidney, less than 5 years of age, abdominal mass, hematuria= describes what condition Wilm's tumor
Often called, "overactive bladder" = Urinary Incontinence
Urge, Stress, Overflow = describes what = Urinary Incontinence
What muscle weakness attributes to urinary incontinence Urinary Incontinence
Most common type of hernia Indirect Inguinal hernia
This hernia passes down the inguinal canal and exits at the external inguinal ring and into the scrotum = Indirect Inguinal hernia
This hernia occurs more frequently in children then in adults Indirect Inguinal hernia
Most common hernia in those over 40 yoa= Direct Inguinal hernia
Does not pass through the inguinal canal directly but exits through the external inguinal ring instead. Direct Inguinal hernia
This hernia is felt when the patient coughs or bears down = Direct Inguinal hernia
This hernia is typically aquired from obesity or heavy lifting Direct Inguinal hernia
Appears as a bulge lateral and inferior to the external inguinal ring at the site of the femoral pulse = Femoral hernia
abnormal endometrial tissue found outside its normal location. Most commonly found in ovaries = Endometriosis
Surgical procedure for endometriosis = laparscopy
uterus will have painless nodules that are irregular and firm = Uterine Fibroids
Presents with abdominal pain, back pain, menorrhagia, painful intercourse, and possible infertility = ( not an std) Endometriosis
Benign uterine tumors of smooth muscle origin (Leiomyoma) and presents with heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, and painful intercourse = Uterine fibroids
Infection of the upper female genital tract. It is most common complication of an STD. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
PID is most common complication of these two STD's = *Gonorrhea* and chlamydia
Pregnancy in which implantation occurs outside the endometrial cavity Ectopic pregnancy
Presents with spotting, increase bp, and decreased HCG = what does this signify in a woman? Ectopic pregnancy
A non viable embryo which develops in the placenta with all the signs of pregnancy/ Very high HCG = Hydatiform mole
A malignancy of the placenta due to abnormal epithelium Choriocarcinoma
Created by: bglasman
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