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A & P chapter 1


Anatomy studys the structures or form
divisions of the study of anatomy cytology, histology, gross anatomy, developmental, and systematic
cytology examining the cells
histology study of the tissues
gross anatomy large objects that can be seen w/o a microscope
developmental how orangisms change from conception to adult
systemic study of systems
Three types of anatomy regional, surface, and anatomical
regional anatomy studying all aspects and systems in one region of the body
surface anatomy studying external features and how they relate to internal structures
anatomical imaging mri, ultrasound, and ct scan...
physiology study of the functions of living organisms
levels of organization of the body chemical, organelle, cellular, tissues, organs, systems, and organism
chemical atoms combine to produce molecules(enzymes)
organelle molecules combine to produce specialized structures in cells(endoplasmic reticulum)
cellular the baasic unit of living organisms cary out vital tasks within an organism
tissues groups of differnt cells
organs groups of different tissues which perform a function
systems groups of organs with common functions
organism the whole thing
characteristics of life organization, metabolism, responsiveness, growth and development, reproduction, and waste disposal
metabolism the sum of all chemical reactions (anabolism and catabolism)
responsiveness homeostasis
growth and development morphogenesis (growing and developing together
homeostasis a steady state or balance within an acceptable rance in the internal environment in the body
control systems nervous and endocrine
negative feedback componenets receptor, integrator, and effector
receptor sensor that senses the conditions in the body
integrator the controller that compares values recieved from the sensor with the normals
effector the part of the body that causes the response to bring value back to set point
variable causes a change in the internal environment of the body
response the reaction that comes from what the effector did
positive feedback not a part of homeostasis. it increases the effet of the stimulus which accelerats the processes that are already in motion. Usuallly only used when a rapid change is desired.
superior above
inferior below
proximal clost to the joint
distal farther from the joint
medial closer to the middle
lateral in the middle of or farther from the median
anterior front
posterior back
ventral belly side
dorsal backside
transverse top and bottom
saggital left and right sides
midsagittal left and right equal sides
para sagittal left and right unequal sides
fontal/coronal front and back side
body cavities abdominopelvic and thoracic
mediastinum divides thoracic cavity into right and left sides
serous membranes cover the organs and lines the cavities
visceral covers the organs
parietal lines the cavities
pleural lungs
pericardial heart
peritoneal abdominal cavity
mensenteries/retroperitoneal organs some abdoominal organs are not contained within the serous membranes and are attached to the body wall.
Created by: masantha4