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Cliffs AP Bio-5


multiplication rule to determine the probability of 2 or more independent events occurring together, multiply the probabilities of each event happening separately
gene genetic material on a chromosome that contains the instructions for creating a particular trait
allele several varieties of a gene
locus location on a chromosome where a gene is located
homologous chromosomes each parent contributes a chromosome to the pair, they may contain different alleles
dominant gene that is being expressed
recessive gene that is not expressed
phenotype physical expression of a gene
genotype represents the actual alleles
law of segregation one member of each chromosome pair migrates to an opposite pole so that each gamete contains only one copy of each chromosome
law of independent assortment the migration of homologues in one homologous chromosome to opposite poles does not affect the migration of homologues of other homologous pairs
monohybrid cross one trait is being investigated
dihybrid cross two traits are being investigated
complete dominance dominant allele is expressed over recessive allele
incomplete dominance the combined expression of 2 different alleles produces a blending of the individual expressions of the two alleles ex. wavy hair
codominance both inherited alleles are completely expressed
multiple alleles ex. A, B, and O blood types
epistasis one gene affects the phenotypic expression of a second gene ex. one gene turns on (or off) the production of a pigment, while a second gene controls either the amount of pigment produced or the color of the pigment
pleiotropy single gene has more than one phenotypic expression ex. sickle-cell disease, gene incorrectly codes for hemoblobin, causing the RBC to change shape and can cause death
polygenic inheritance many genes shape a single phenotype ex. height
linked genes genes that reside on the same chromosome and cannot segregate independently because they are physically connected
the greater the distance between 2 genes... the more likely the two genes will cross over during synapsis
sex linked genes genes that reside on the X chromosome
example of sex linked gene hemophilia--> cannot properly clot blood
x inactivation in females, one X becomes a barr body, so only the alleles on the active X chromosome are expressed
nondisjunction failure of one or more chromosome pair/chromotids to properly separate during meiosis or mitosis
polyploidy all of the chromosomes undergo meiotic nondisjunction and produce gametes with twice the number of chromosomes; mostly happens in plants
point mutations when a single nucleotide in the DNA of a gene is incorrect
substitution different nucleotide is substituted for the correct one
deletion nucleotide base-pair is omitted
insertion extra base-pair is inserted
aneuploidy genome with extra or missing chromosome, often caused by nondisjunction
down syndrome trisomy 21
turner syndrome nondisjunction of the sex chromosomes, sperm will either have both sex chromosomes (XY) or none (O)
Created by: 1329600122
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