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Atomic and Nuclear

Chad Video and Kaplan Book Chemistry

What does Z symbolize number of protons
What does N symbolize N
change in mass number but same atomic number ISOTOPE
[Ar] 4s1 3d5 NOT 4s2 3d4 d half full and s half full so preferred- (exception) Cr
[AR} 4s1 3d 10 this fills up d shell and s shell is incomplete Cu
configuration of Cu+ [Ar] 4s1 3d10 --> [Ar]3d 10
something that has unpaired electrons attracted to magnetic field paramagnetic -
no unpaired electrons slight repulsion to magnetic field diamagnetic
odd number of electrons --> paramagnetic or diamagnetic paramagnetic
principal quantum number and their range gives shell number n = 1, 2, 3, 4 range [ 1 to infinity]
azimuthal quantum number gives subshell- tells if you are in s, p, d, or f orbital l= [0 to n-1]
azimuthal number when in s orbital n=1 l=0 (n-1)
azimuthal number when in p orbital n= 2 l= can be 0 or 1 (n-1)
azimuthal number when in d orbital n=3 l= (3-1) 0, 1, or 2
azimuthal number when in f orbital n =4 4-1= 3 l= 0, 1, 2, or 3
magnetic quantum number Ml gives orientation in space
what is the range for magnetic quantum number -l to +l
magnetic quantum number for s orbital -0 to +0
magnetic quantum number for p orbital -1, 0, +1 represents x, y , z
magentic quantum number for d orbital l=2 [-l to +l] -2, -1, 0, 1, 2
what is incorrect in the quantum number: [3, 2, -1, -1] fourth number, magnetic spin, should be 1/2
magnetic spin Ms can be -1/2 or +1/2
what is incorrect in the quantum number: [3, 3, -1, 1/2] second number- azimuthal number is n-1 so should be 2 not 3
what is incorrect in the quantum number: [3, 2, -3, 1/2] third number - magnetic number is -l to +l so cannot be -3, should be -2
what is the configuration for the excited state: ground state: [Ar] 4s2, 3d10, 4p5 [Ar] 4s2, 3d10, 4p4, 5s1
1st criteria to check for unstable nucleus if odd number of protons and neutrons- it will be RADIOACTIVE
2nd criteria to check for unstable nucleus check ratio of N/Z (neutrons/protons)
for elements larger than Ca: N/Z ratio should be 1.6
for elements upto Ca (Z=20) N/Z ratio should be 1
alpha decay what does it cause reduction in mass by 4
what does alpha decay affect heavy elements greater than atomic number 83 (want to lose mass so do alpha decay)
232/90 Th alpha decay--> 228/88 Rn + 4/2 alpha particle
B- decay (electron emission) 232/90 Th --> 0/-1 B + 232/91 Pa N/Z ratio too high - above belt of stability
B + decay (positron emmision) 232/90 Th 0/+1 B + 232/89 Ac N/Z ratio too low- too many neutrons so add protons
Electron capture 232/90 Th + 0/-1 e --> 232/89 Ac when N/Z ratio too low so want to add protons
gamma decay 232/90 Th --> 0/0 gamma + 232/90 Th
each element is excited to its distinct energy level so it has its own line spectrum that serves as a fingerprint for the element atomic emission spectrum
hydrogen emission lines from n>2 to n=2 Balmer series
hydrogen emission lines from n >1 to n= 1 Lyman series
energy absorbed as an electron jumps from an orbital of low energy to high energy which characterizes each element absorption spectrum
atomic radius as you go down the period? it will decrease because more electrons are added
atomic radius as you go down the group it will increase because electrons are farther from the nucleus
energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion ionization energy
as you go across the period to the right: ionization energy Increases as you go across because require more energy to remove electrons because they all want to gain electrons to fill octet
as you go down the column: ionization energy decrease as you go down- electrons are farther and loosely held
energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom electron affinity
as you go across the period to the right: electron affinity increases: elements want to add electron to fill their octet so eagerly accept the electron
as you go down the column: electron affinity decreases as you go down:
measure of the attraction an atom has for electrons in a chemical bond electronegativity
as you go across the period to the right: electronegativity increase
as you go down the column: electronegativity decrease
why does Be have a higher ionization energy than Li it has a filled s subshell so wants to hold on to its electron more
shiny solids, malleability, ductility, good conductors, high melting point and density METALS
brittle, no metallic luster, high ionization energy, poor conductor, high electron negativity NON-Metals
why is N have a higher ionization energy than oxygen? trend reverses because N has half filled orbital so it is stable and satisfied so it is an exception
good semiconductors metalloids
have largest atomic radii, high reactivity, low ionization energy, low electronegativity; similar to metals alkali metals
metallic properties, 2 valence electrons, low electronegativities, and positive electron affinity alkaline earths
highly reactive nonmetals with seven valence electrons, high electronegativity HALOGENS
electron affintiy: exothermic or endothermic exothermic; gets more negative as go to the left because there is a greater release of energy
inert gas; non reactive; complete valence shell; low boiling point; gas at room temperature noble gas
metals; high melting and boiling point; malleable; oxidation states; highly colored solutions; transition elements
which transition metal has higher ionization energy 3d 10 with Zn, Cd, Hg because their d subshell is filled
metal with nonmetal; high melting/boiling point; brittle ionic bond
nonmetal with nonmetal; lower melting/boiling point covalent bond
metal with metal; high melting point metallic bond
Created by: sfkhan7797
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