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kaplanorgchem

DAT Kaplan OChem

QuestionAnswer
alkanes are the simplest organic molecules consisting of only ___ and ___ atoms held together by single bonds carbon and hydrogen
in IUPAC, common should be placed between __ numbers
in IUPAC, dashes should be placed between words
alkanes can form rings. they are names to the number of carbon atoms in the rings with the prefix ____ cyclo
alkenes uses the prefix ___- -ene
in alkenes, to identify the carbon backbone, the longest chain that contains the ____ bond. count from the lowest number to reach the double bond. double
alkenes vs alkanes. the difference between them is that alkenes contains a ____ bond double
vinyl derivatives are ____ ethylenes (ethenyl) monosubsituted
allyl derivatives are ____ substituted at the C3 position propylenes
Methylene refers to the ___ group CH2
cycloalkenes are named like cycloalkanes but the suffix ____ rather than ____ ene, anes
if there is only ___ double bond and no other substituents a number is not necessary. 1
alkynes are compounds that posses carbon carbon ___ bonds 3x
common name for ethyne is acetylene
halogen substituent are name so that the appendages are numbered and alphabetizes as ___ groups alkyl
haloalkane can be named alkyl halide
molecules with two hydroxyl groups are called diols
esthers are named with the prefix alkoxy
esthers contain ___ oxygen
three membered rings in ethers are known as oxiranes/epoxides
aldehydes are named accoridng to the longest chain containing aldehyde functional groups with the prefix al
ketones ends with prefix -one
carbocylic acids end with oic and acid
amines end in prefix amine
carboxylic acid C=OOH
Ester C=OOC
Acylc Halid C=OX
Nitrile/Cyandile C-Triple bond-N
Aldehyde C=O-H
Ketone C=O-C
cis means on the ___ side same
trans means on the ___ side opposite
the alkene called Z is when the two ___ priority substituents on each carbon lie on the same side of the double bond. high
higher the atomic number, the higher the ____ prority
If the two highest alkenes priority of then it will be known as ___. they lie on the opposite side of the double bond. E
when an object is not superimposable upon its mirror image it is known as a ___ chiral center, like ur right and left hand putting in a glove. they are the same thing but different.
Achiral means when objects are mirror images that can be ___. superimposed. means they are identical. like AA
chiral objects that are nonsuperimposable mirror images are known as enantiomers
if the asymmetric atom is clockwise it is known as R
if the asymmetric atom is counterclick it is known as S
horizonta lines come ___ of the page out
enantiomers has identical chemical and physical properties with one exception of ___ optimal activity
if plane polarized light is passed through an optically active compound, the orientation of the plane is rotated by an angle __- alpha
a compound that rotates the pane of the polarized light to the right or clockwise is _____ and indicated (+) dextrorotatory
a compound that rotates to plane of the polarized light to the left or counterclockwise is ____ and indicated by (-) levoratory
Specific rotation [alpha] = EQUATION observered roration (alpha)/concentration (g/ml) x length (dm)
racemix mixture is a mixture of equal concentrations of both ___ and ___ enantimoers + and -
Diastereomers are for any molecules with __ chiral centers n
Mirror images of each other are called enantiomers
stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other are caleld diastereomers
Meso compounds are if a plane of symmetry exists which makes the molecule ___ optically active not
L-tartaric and D-tartaric acids ____ optically active are
L-tartaric acid is when the ___ is on top of the the __- H; OH
D-Tartaric acid is when the ___ is on top of the ___ OH; H
Conformational isomers are compounds that___ only by rotation about one or more single bonds differ
The most stable conformation is when the two methyl groups (C1 and C4) are oriented ___ degrees from each other 180
180 degrees confirmation with no overlap of atoms is known as the ___ confirmation staggered; anti-conformation
gauche is when the two methyl groups are ___ degrees a part 60
eclipse confirmation in which two methyl groups are ___ apart and overlap with the H atoms 120
When the two methyl groups are overlapping each other its called a ___ total eclipse and its in its higher energy state
strain energies: angle strain results when bond angles deviate from their ___ values ideal
strain energies: ____ strain results when cyclic molecules must assume conformation that have eclipsed interactions torsional strain
nonbonded strains result when atoms or groups compete for the ___ space same
equatorial position is favored over the ___ position axial because of the steric repulsion
Boat cyclohexane, chair cyclohexane and twist boat confirmation. rank the most stable to least. chair, boat, twist
structural isomers are compounds that share the same ____ molecular formula
chiral means that at least one of its carbon must be ___ to four substituents attached
achrial means when the carbon are attached to two or more identical groups
the relative confirmation of a chiral molecule is its confirmation in relation to ___ chiral molecule another
the absolute configuration of a chiral molecule describes the ___ arrangement of these atoms or groups spatial
if a lower energy bonding orbital is produced, then the signs of the wave functions are the ___ same
if a higher energy orbital is produced, the signs are __ different
shorter single bonds are ____ than longer single bonds stronger
single bond order is a ____ bond sigma
single bond order has an angle of ___ and hybridization of ___ 180; sp
Double bond order has a ____ and ___ bond 1 sigma and 1 pi
double bond order has a hybridization of ___ sp2
double bond order has an angle of __ 120
triple bond order has an angle of __- 109.5
triple bond order has ___ and ___ bond 2 pi and 1 sigma
triple bond order has a hybridization of __- sp3
in alkanes, as the molecular weight increases and chain length increases then increase in MP BP and Density
in alkanes, increase in branching causes a decrease in MP BP and Density
initations have two dats on t he right
propagation has dots equal on the right and left
termination has two dots on the left
prolysis occurs when a molecule is broken down by heat
if the nucleophiles have the same attacking atom then the nucleophilicity is roughly correlated to ___ basicity. stronger the base, stronger the nucleophile.
best leaving groups in halogens start from the bottom (strongest) to the top (weakest)
best nucleophilic strengths are from the top to the bottom
for SN1 reactions, structural factors: highly substituted alkkyl halids allow for distribution of the positive charge over a greater number of carbon atoms, TF True
IN SN1 rxn, solvent effects are where ___ polar solvents are better at surrounding and isolating ions that are less polar solvents. polar protic solvents such as water work best since solvation stabilizes intermediate state Higher
Nature of leaving group: ___ bases dissociate more easily from alkyl chain and thus make better leaving groups, increasing rate of carbocation formation base
SN1: the rate is ___ dependent on the concentration or the nature of the nucleophile not
Created by: Andrewvo
 

 



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