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DAT ch 15

bio- classification from coursesaver notes

Kingdom Monera (bacteria) – prokaryotes that reproduce Asexually; circular DNA (transcription and translation occur in same place at same time); cell wall made ofpeptidoglycan which contains D-alanine (animal AA have L-configuration**) ;
Gram-positive in monera kingdom- have thick peptidoglycan;
Gram-negative in monera kingdom- have thin peptidoglycan but have additional outer layer;
three mechanisms for acquiring new genetic material transduction(use of lysogenic phage). Transformation, Conjugation (once cell copies DNA => transferred through bridge/ F+ is male)
Cyanobacteria called blue-green algae (NOT same algae from protista); cell wall and have photosynthetic pigments; NO flagella, NO nucleus, NO mito
Bacteria, shapes single loop of DNA; can be round (cocci), rods (bacilli), or spiral (spirilla)
Kingdom Protista unicellular eukaryotes; membrane bound nucleus and organelles  ‑Protozoa – rhizopods (amoebas) move w/ pseudopods; cilliophors move w/ cilia; ex. Paramecium, green algae, Volvox ‑Algae – photosynthetic; ex phytoplankton and euglena (move w/ flagellum)
Kingdom Fungi heterotrophs; may be saprophytic or parasitic; ex yeast, lichen, mushrooms; reproduce sexually (haploid adults) or asexually (spore formation, budding, fragmentation)
hyphae branching filament of fungi, most are divided by septa (perforated w/ holes large enough for organelles), collectively known as mycelium
Fungi Classes zygomycetes (ex. bread mold), basidiomycetes (ex. mushrooms),ascomycetes (ex. sac fungi)
Kingdom Plantae photosynthetic autotrophs; differentiation of tissues (photosynthetic, supportive, vascular, absorptive); alternation of generations (reproduction)
Division Bryophyta simple plants; must live in moist places; gametophyte is dominant; sporophyte develops into archegonium; NO xylem
Mosses division bryophyta primitive; gametophyte and sporophyte grow together
Liverworts division bryophyta leaf-like plant; consists of lower part (rhizoids), middle part (food storage), upper part (photosynthetic)
Division Tracheophyta vascular plants, radial symmetry; grow to great heights; sporophyte dominant
Psilophytes division tracheophyta- most primitive; contain rhizoids instead of roots
Lycophyta division tracheophyta  -club mosses; roots, non-woody
Sphenophytes division tracheophyta - horsetail; roots, hollow-jointed stems
Pterophyta division tracheophyta -fern; evolved from psilopsids, many vascular bundles; sperm are flagellated; grow from rhizome; sporangium is under leaves
Division Coniferophyta gymnosperms, megaspores and microspores; specialized cambium tissue allows for secondary growth; ex:Cycads, pines, spruce, firs – (most are evergreens /nondeciduous
gymnosperms can grow in diameter as well as length
megaspores large female cones
microspores small male cones
Division Anthophyta angiosperms; covered seeds; most abundant of all plants
Dicotyledons net veined leaves
Monocotyledons leaves w/ parallel veins
Kingdom Animalia multicellular, motile, heterotrophic organisms w/ differentiated tissues; most have bilateral symmetry; all employ some form of locomotion
Porifera sponges; two layers of cells; have pores; sessile
Cnidarians jellyfish, coral, hydra; digestive sac sealed at one end; net nerves; two layers of cells (ectoderm/ endoderm); RADIALLY symmetrical
cnidoblasts specialized cells located in the tentacles and bodywalls of coloenterates; interior of cnidoblasts filled with stinging cells (nematocysts)
Platyhelminthes flat worm; bilaterally symmetrical; 3 layers of cells (solid mesoderm); NO circulatory system; nervous system consists of eyes, anterior brain ganglion & longitudinal nerve cords
Nematoda round worms; long digestive tubes & anus; solid mesoderm; NO circulartory system; nerve cords and nerve ring
Annelida earthworms; possess coelom (true body cavity – in mesoderm); well defined systems including nervous, circulatory, and excretory
Mollusca clams; softbodied & posses mantles which secrete calcareous (calcium carbonate); breathe by gills; chambered hearts; nerve chords
Class Gastropoda largest Molluscan class; ex. slugs & snails; characterized by single shell
Class Cephalopoda octopus and squid
Arthropoda insects, spiders, crustaceans (lobster); jointed appendages, chitinous exoskeleton, and open circulatory
Echinoderms starfish; RADIALLY symmetrical; regeneration; evolutionary evidence suggesting a link b/w echinoderms and chordates
Chordates notochord; lancelets & tunicates & amphoxius (not vertebrates because retain notochord)
Fish characteristics possess 2 chambered heart; gills; external fertilization
Jawless fish sucking mouth; retain notochord; primitive (Agnatha)
Cartilaginous fish jaws and teeth; reduced notochord; ex shark (chondrichthys)
Bony fish most prevalent; lack notochord; ex trout (Osteichthys)
Amphibia tadpole; has lungs; 3 chambered heart; external fertilization; eggs are laid in water w/ jelly like secretion
Reptiles lungs; internal fertilization; cold blooded
Birds warm blooded; 4 chambered heart - long Loop of Henle = concentrated urine = uric crystals
Mammals warm blooded; feed offspring w/ milk from mammary glands
Created by: xeenie