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DAT O Chem

DAT Organic Chemistry

As a pure liquid, what makes hydrogen bonds? F-H, O-H, N-H
What could hydrogen bond with something protic like H2O? F, O, N
What is the stability of carbocations? 3˚>2˚>1˚>Methyl
What do electron withdrawing groups do to nucleophiles? Stabilizes them
What do electron withdrawing groups do to electrophiles? Makes them stronger
How can you tell if something is oxidized or reduced? More Oxygen = Oxidized, More Hydrogen = Reduced
How do you measure units of unsaturation? CnH2n+2 1˚ for every π bond, or electron pair. (When N is present, add 1 H to total)
How do you rank bases? CARDIO Charge, Atom (size, bigger=more stable) Resonance, Dipole Induction, Orbital
Are chiral compounds optically active? No, chiral compounds are not optically active.
What is a racemic mixture? 1/2: 1/2 enantiomer ratio, so it does not rotate light at all.
How can you tell if it is an enantiomer or not? Enantiomers = exact opposites of chiral centers.
What is an epimer? A diastereomer with 1 chiral center that is different.
What is a diastereomer? Some chiral centers match, some do not.
Which type of reaction causes inversion of chiral centers? SN2
What are the respective orders of SN1 and SN2 reactions? SN1 = 1st order rate law SN2 = 2nd order rate law
Which reaction produces a racemization of enantiomers? SN1
What type of electrophiles do SN2 reactions prefer? CH3 > 1˚ > 2˚
What type of electrophiles do SN1 reactions prefer? 3˚ > 2˚
Which reaction prefers a protic solvent? SN1
What type of reaction will a strong base go with? E2
What is the order of electrophiles that E1 reactions prefer? 3˚ > 2˚
What is the order of electrophiles that E2 reactions prefer? 3˚> 2˚>1˚
What is the product of a bulky base + tert butoxide? The "Hoffman" product - Terminal Alekene
Are halogens (-F, -Cl, -Br, -I) activating or deactivating? Deactivating - but they direct in an Ortho/Para manner.
Are π donors (-NH2, -OH, -OR, and -NHCOCH3) activating or deactivating and how do they direct? Activating - ORTHO/ PARA
How do these functional groups direct? -SO3H, -CN, -NO2, -NR3 META directors because they are "Deactivating"
How do carbonyl groups direct? Meta directors because they are "deactivating"
In order to be meso what does a compound have to have? 1. Chiral centers 2. A plane of symmetry
Created by: sstauffer7
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