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PHM 316 ch 6

Musculoskeletal

QuestionAnswer
ankyl/o crooked/stiff
arthr/o joint/articulation
articul/o joint/articulation
brachi/o arm
cervic/o neck
chondr/o cartilage (gristle)
cost/o rib
crani/o skull
dactyl/o digit (finger or toe)
fasci/o fascia (a band)
femor/o femur
fibr/o fiber
kyph/o humpback
lei/o smooth
lord/o bent
lumb/o loin/lower back
myel/o bone marrow/spinal cord
my/o muscle
myos/o muscle
muscul/o muscle
oste/o bone
patell/o knee cap
pelv/i hip bone or pelvic cavity
pelv/o hip bone or pelvic cavity
radi/o radius
rhabd/o rod shaped or striated (skeletal)
sarc/o flesh
scoli/o twisted
spondyl/o vertebra
vertebr/o vertebra
stern/o sternum (breastbone)
ten/o tendon
tend/o tendon
tendin/o tendon
thorac/o chest
ton/o tone or tension
uln/o ulna
appendicular skeleton bones of shoulder, pelvis, and upper/lower extremities
axial skeleton bones of skull, vertebral column, chest, and hyphoid bone (U shaped bone lying at the base of the tongue)
bone specialied connective tissue composed of osteocytes forming the skeleton
compact bone tightly solid, strong bone tissue resistant to bending
spongy (cancellous bone) mesh-like bone tissue containing marrow and fine branching canals through which blood vessels run
long bones bones of the arms and legs
short bones bones of the wrists and ankles
flat bones bones of ribs, shoulder blades, pelvis, and skull
irregular bones bones of vertebra and face
sesamoid bones round bones found near joints
epiphysis wide ends of a long bone
diaphysis shaft of a long bone
metaphysis growth zone between epiphysis and diaphysis during development of a long bone
endosteum membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone
medullary cavity cavity within the shaft of the long bones filled with bone marrow
bone marrow soft connective tissue within the medullary cavities of bone
red bone marrow found in cavities of most bones in infants; functions in formation of red blood cells, some white blood cells, and platelets. In adults, it is found most often in flat bones
yellow bone marrow gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones, functions as storage for fat tissue and is inactive in formation of blood cells
periosteum a fibrous, vascular membrane that covers the bone
articular cartilage a gristle-like substance found on bones where they articulate
articulation a joint, the point where two bones come together
bursa a fibrous sac between certain tendons and bones that is lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid
disk (disc) a flat, plate-like structure composed of fibrocartilaginous tissue found between the vertebrae to reduce friction
nucleus pulposus the soft, fibrocartilaginous central portion of intervertbral disk
ligament a flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
synovial membrane membrane lining the capsule of a joint
synovial fluid lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane
muscle tissue composed of fibers that can contract, causing movement of an organ or part of the body
striated (skeletal) muscle voluntar striated muscle attached to the skeleton
smooth muscle involuntary muscle found in internal organs
cardiac muscle muscle of the heart
origin of a muscle muscle end attached to the bone that does not move when the muscle contracts
insertion of a muscle muscle end attached to the bone that moves when the muscle contracts
tendon a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone
fascia a band or sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle
coronal plane (frontal) vertical division of the body into front and back anterior/posterior positions
sagittal plane vertical division of the body into right and left portions
transverse plane horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions
anterior (A) (ventral) front of the body
posterior (P) (dorsal) back of the body
anterior-posterior (AP) from front to back; commonly associated with the direction of an xray beam
Posterior-anterior (PA) from the back to the front; commonly associated with the direction of an xray beam
superior (cephalic) situated above another structure, toward the head
inferior (caudal) situated below another structure, away from the head
proximal toward the beginning or origin of a structure
distal away from the beginning or origin of a structure
medial toward the middle (midline)
lateral toward the side
axis line that runs through the center of the body or a body part
erect normal standing position
decubitus lying down, especially in bed. lateral decubitis is lying on the side
prone lying face down and flat
recumbent lying down
supine horizontal recumbant - lying flat on back (on the spine)
flexion bending at the joint so that the angle between the bone is decreased
extension straightening at the joint so that the angle between the bones is increased
abduction movement away from the body
adduction movement toward the body
rotation circular movement around an axis
eversion turning outward
inversion turning inward
supination turning upward or forward of the plamar surface or plantar surface
pronation turning downward or backward of the palmar surface or plantar surface
dorsiflexion bending of the foot or the toes upward
plantar flexion bending of the sole of the foot by curling the toes toward the ground
range of motion(ROM) total motion possible in a joint
goniometer instrument used to measure joint angles
arthralgia joint pain
atrophy shrinking of tissue such as muscle
crepitation grating sounds made by movement of some joints or broken bones
crepitus grating sounds made by movement of some joints or broken bones
exostosis a projection arising from a bone that develops from cartilage
flaccid flabby, relaxed, or having defective or absent muscle tone
hypertrophy increase in the size of tissue such as muscle
hypotonia reduced muscle tone or tension
myalgia muscle pain
myodonia muscle pain
ostealgia bone pain
osteodynia bone pain
rigor stiffness, stiff muscle
rigidity stiffness, stiff muscle
spasm drawing in, involuntary contraction of muscle
spastic uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscles causing stiff and awkward movements
tetany tension; prolonged continuous muscle contraction
tremor shaking, rhythmic muscular movement
Created by: HugsAndKisses