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a&p chapter2

exam 1

Chemical energy formed in bonds of chemical substance
Mechanical Energy directly involved in moving matter
Electrical Energy results from movement of charged particles
Radiant or electromagnetic energy exhibits wavelike properties (Ultraviolet, X-rays, visual light)
Kinetic energy energy in action; kinetic energy is seen in constant movement of the tiniest particles of matter
Potential energy Is stored energy which has the potential to do work but is not presently doing so.
Protons charge & amu Protons have a positive charge & 1 amu
Neutrons Neutrons have no charge/ neutral charge and 1 amu
Electrons electrons have a negative charge and 0 amu
atomic number number of protons in the nucleus
atomic mass sum of protons and neutrons
isotopes structural variations of elements that differ in number of neutrons they contain
Ionic bond formed by the transfer of valence shell electrons between atoms
polar covalent bond is a bond between two non metals with different electrnegativities
Non polar covalent bond the two atoms sharing electrons, share them equally
Hydrogen bond they form when an hydrogen atom already covalently linked to one electronegative atom is attracted by another electron-hungry atom, so that a “bridge” forms between them.
synthesis reaction when atoms or molecules are combined to form a larger more complex molecule A+B=AB
Decomposition reaction occurs when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules, bonds are broken AB=A+B
Exchange reaction involve both synthesis and decomposition; bonds are both broken and made AB+C → AC+B
Properties of water 1. high heat capacity-absorbs &releases heat with little temp. change and prevents sudden changes in temp. 2. high heat of vaporization-useful cooling mechanism 3. polar solvent properties 4. Reactivity- necessary in hydrolysis and dehydration synthesi
Salts ionic compound that dissociates in wate, contains cation and anions other than H+ and OH- ions conduct electrical currents in solution
acids have sour taste,can react with many metals, an acid is a substance that releases Hydrogen ions (H+) in detectable amounts.
base has bitter taste, slippery,and are proton acceptors- that is they take up hydrogen ions in detectable amounts. Bases= OH-
buffers a mixture of compounds that resist pH changes they convert strong acids or bases into weak ones
carbohydrates; building blocks and examples monosaccarides (simple sugars) examples: sugars & starches major source of cellular fuel
Lipids; building blocks & examples triglycerides Examples: fatty acids & glycerol
Proteins; building blocks & examples amino acids examples: glycine, alanine
Nucleic acid; building blocks & examples Nucleotides examples: cytosine, adenine, guanine
Fibrous proteins structural, strandlike, water insoluble and stable ex: Elastin & collagen
globular proteins functional, spherical, water soluble and sensitive to environmental changes ex: hormones& antibodies
Enzymes biological catalysts, lower the activation energy, increase the speed of reaction
catalysts substances that regulate and accelerate reactions
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate ; adenine-containing RNA nucleotide with two additional phosphate groups.
Created by: rolandowallace