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Key Terms Test 3


AFFIRMATIVE ACTION Policies that give special attention or treatment to people from a disadvantaged group; seek equal results
AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT Law that denied federal funds to any institution that discriminates against people over 40 (later expanded to 70) due to age
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT Law that requires employers and public facilities to make "reasonable accommodations" for people with disabilities
CIVIL RIGHTS Policies designed to protect people from arbitrary discrimination by the government
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Law that forbids racial discrimination in motels, hotels, restaurants, and in many jobs
COMPARABLE WORTH Issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men who work jobs requiring similar skills
DE FACTO LAW Policy indirectly produced by a separate law or policy
DE JURE LAW Policy implemented through law
EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION Agency created by the Civil Rights Act of 1965 to ensure fair hiring practices
EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment that requires all laws provide protection to all people without unnecessary discrimination.
EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT Failed constitutional amendment that would have outlawed discrimination based on gender
GRANDFATHER CLAUSES/POLL TAXES/WHITE PRIMARIES/LITERACY TESTS Methods used by southern states to legally deny blacks the vote; all were eventually outlawed.
MEDIUM OF SECURITY Method used by the courts for defining gender bias; distinctions must have a "exceedingly persuasive justification."
MINORITY MAJORTY DISTRICTING Gerrymandering with the goal of creating districts dominated by minorities; struck down by Supreme Court
SEXUAL HARASSMENT Actions defined by the Court as so pervasive as to create a hostile or abusive work environment and is a form of gender discrimination banned by the Civil Rights Act
STANDARDS OF REVIEW Criteria established by the courts for evaluating equal protection of the laws
TITLE IX Part of the Education Act of 1972, banned discrimination in federally subsidized education programs including sports at both secondary and collegiate levels
VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965 Law that lowered barriers, such as literacy tests, that prevented blacks from voting during the Civil rights movement
WOMEN'S EQUITY IN EMPLOYMENT ACT Law that require employers to prove that promotions were based on merit and not gender.
APPROPRIATIONS BILL Type of bill that allocates the funds necessary to carry out authorization bills; usually last one year
AUTHORIZATION BILL Bill that establishes, continues, or changes a discretionary program in order to meet the budget resolution
BUDGET RESOLUTION An agreement that prohibits Congress from spending more than a set amount while making the budget
CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET AND IMPOUNDMENT CONTROL ACT Law that established a budget making calendar, Congressional budget committees, and the Congressional Budget Office; made Congress stronger in the budget process
CONTINUING RESOLUTION Resolution for when Congress cannot meet budgetary goals, agencies are allowed to spend at the level of the previous year
DEFICIT Result of government spending more than it makes in revenue for a given budget year
DISCRETIONARY SPENDING Government expenditures (mostly on bureaucratic agencies) that can be adjusted from year to year.
EMERGENCY DEFICIT CONTROL ACT Law that lasted from 1985 to 1990, established deficit limits for future budgets in order to balance the budget by 1993; was a failure
FISCAL POLICY Policies pertaining to taxing and spending
INCREMENTALISM Belief that a new budget should be the same as the last budget, plus a little more
NATIONAL DEBT The long term accumulation of budget deficits.
NON-DISCRETIONARY SPENDING Government expenditures that by law must be met, regardless of financial situation (e.g., entitlements)
RECONCILIATION Process where last minute adjustments to spending bills occur to meet the budget resolution
SLUSH FUND Money appropriated for certain purposes, but is instead used by government officials for for their questionable purposes.
TAX CREDITS Revenue losses resulting from legal exemptions, exclusions, or deductions from one's tax return.
TAX LOOPHOLES Name given to ways taxpayers can pay less in taxes buy cheating or circumventing requirements.
TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 Legislation that eliminated many tax deductions, removed the tax burden from the poor, and reduced the number of tax brackets
ANTI TRUST POLICY Policies designed to ensure competition by breaking up monopolies
BALANCE OF TRADE Ratio of what is paid for imports to what is paid for exports.
FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal bank system that regulates the flow of money to commercial banks and sets interest rates
INFLATION the systemic rise in prices for goods, usually caused by currency printing; measured the Consumer Price Index
KEYNESIAN ECONOMICS Belief that during economic downturns, the government can create demand through spending programs and tax credits
MIXED ECONOMY Economic system which is largely free market, but involves government regulation
MONETARY POLICY Policies involving the money supply, inflation, jobs, and markets.
MULTINATIONALS Type of corporations that have assets in many countries
PROTECTIONISM Policy that calls for preventing consumers from buying foreign goods in order to strengthen domestic businesses
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Federal agency that oversees the stock market and guards against stock fraud
SUPPLY SIDE ECONOMICS Monetary policy insisting the government can create supply by cutting taxes for business to stimulate the economy
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE The proportion of the labor force actively seeking employment, but is unable to find it.
EARNED INCOME TAX CREDIT Tax policy that redistributes income to the poor instead of charging them income tax
ENTITLEMENTS Name for social programs that benefit certain individuals who meet certain requirements, regardless of need.
FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY Name for the increasing concentration of poverty among women, especially single mothers and their children.
IN KIND BENEFITS Non-cash entitlements to people from the government (e.g., food stamps)
INCOME The amount of money one receives for wages or salary in a given amount of time
MEANS TESTED PROGRAMS Entitlements available to individuals near or below the poverty line (e.g., Medicaid).
MEDICAID A shared entitlement between the federal government and the states that sponsors health care for the poor
MEDICARE Government entitlement that sponsors health care for the elderly
PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY AND WORK OPPORTUNITY ACT Law that reformed welfare in 1996; limited the amount of benefits one could receive; created TANF.
POVERTY LINE Defines the amount of income necessary to maintain an "austere" standard of living; used to count the number of poor people
PROGRESSIVE TAX Tax policy where the rich pay a higher percentage of income taxes than the poor; used to redistribute wealth
PROPORTIONAL TAX Tax policy where all classes pay the same percentage of income taxes; also known as a "flat" tax
REGRESSIVE TAX Tax policy where the poor pay a higher percentage in taxes than the rich (e.g., sales tax or any flat number rather than percentage)
SOCIAL SECURITY TRUST FUND The investment fund from which Social Security payments are paid
SOCIAL WELFARE Policies that provide monetary benefits to individuals
TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES (TANF) Welfare program through PRWORA that gives cash payments to the neediest families; replaced the old AFDC welfare program.
WEALTH Value of all of one's assets, including income, investments, and possessions.
WEALTH REDISTRIBUTION Government policy of using taxation or other measures to take wealth the wealthy and give it to others.
CAP AND TRADE Policy that allows businesses to produce a certain amount of pollution; beyond that, they must borrow credits or pay a tax.
CLEAN AIR ACT Law that called on the Department of Transportation to reduce automobile emissions.
ENDANGERED SPEICIES ACT Law that requires the government to protect endangered species regardless of economic impact.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Bureaucratic agency that monitors pollution and toxic wastes
FOSSIL FUELS Sources of nonrenewable fuels that yield emissions; include oil, coal, and natural gas
NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT Law in the 2000s that denied federal grants to states that did not enforce standards; required testing to encourage teacher accountability.
RENEWABLE ENERGY Sources of energy viewed as clean, such as wind and solar power.
SIMPSON MAZZOLI ACT Law in 1986 that granted amnesty to illegal immigrants; banned employment of illegals and secured the border; largely a failure.
WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ACT Legislation that attempted to clean up lakes and rivers; created pollution permit system.
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Agency that coordinates America's spy network in the world.
CONTAINMENT American foreign policy during the early Cold War that called for preventing the spread of Communism, using force if necessary.
DETANTE American foreign policy late in the Cold War that called for an easing of tensions through guarantees of mutual security.
ECONOMIC SANCTIONS Monetary penalties imposed on foreign governments in order to modify its social, political, or economic behavior.
EUROPEAN UNION Economic alliance of European nations to coordinate trade, currency, labor, and immigration.
FOREIGN POLICY Policies that deal with relations with the rest of the world, including diplomacy and military operations.
INTERDEPENDENCY Theory that in the modern world, one nation's actions affect all other nations.
ISOLATIONISM American foreign policy from independence to WWII; included avoiding foreign wars and the invocation of the Monroe Doctrine.
JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF Body made up of heads from each of the military services and a chairman; advises and informs the president on military policy.
NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL Body formed in 1947 to advise the president on national security; includes the president, vice president, secretaries of state and defense, and the president's national security advisor.
NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO) Military alliance of western nations and Turkey that vows to defend all members.
ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC) Economic organization made up of Arab and South American countries that control the supply and price of oil.
STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE (aka STAR WARS) Reagan's foreign policy that called for a system to intercept Soviet missiles; he also sought to win the arms race through massive defense spending.
UNITED NATIONS Global peace keeping body with membership of most nations; monitors human rights, economic freedoms, and potential conflicts.
Created by: erikmurphy
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