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Holzshu Civics 2017

A guide to Civics games

QuestionAnswer
Similarities between political parties Organize to win elections and Reflect both liberal and conservative views
Political Parties define themselves in a way that wins majority support by appealing to the political center
Differences between parties Stated in party platforms and reflected in campaigning
Third parties Introduce new ideas and/or press for a particular issue
Example of a third party political personality: (e.g., Theodore Roosevelt)
citizens make informed choices in elections by separating fact from opinion and detecting bias
Mass media roles include writing editorials, creating political cartoons, publishing op-ed pieces
The high cost of getting elected changed campaigning for public office give an advantage to wealthy individuals who run for office
Campaign finance reform rising campaign cost have led to efforts to reform campaign finance laws.
Limits have been placed on the amount individuals may contribute to political candidates and campaigns.
Only citizens who register to vote may participate in primary and general elections.
Qualifications to register to vote in Virginia Be a Citizen, a resident of VA, and at least 18 years
How to register to vote in Virginia at the Division of Motor Vehicles
TIME LIMIT: VA Voter registration is closed 22 days before elections.
Factors in predicting which citizens will vote Education, Age AND Income
Reasons why citizens fail to vote Lack of interest AND/OR Failure to register
The percentage of voters who participate in presidential elections is usually greater than the percentage of voters who participate in state and local elections.
Every vote is important.
Electoral College process is a slate of electors for each state is chosen by popular vote.
With the Electoral College, Most states have a winner-take-all system.
The electors meet to vote for president and vice president.
A state’s Congressional representation, is based on the state’s population.
The requirement for a majority vote to win in the Electoral College favors a two-party system.
Consent of the governed: The people are the source of any and all governmental power. Limited government:
Rule of law: The government and those who govern are bound by the law, as are those who are governed.
Democracy: In a democratic system of government, the people rule.
Representative government: In a representative system of government, the people elect public officeholders to make laws and conduct government on the people’s behalf.
The charters of the Virginia Company of London guaranteed the rights of Englishmen to the colonists.
The Virginia Declaration of Rights served as a model for the Bill of Rights of the Constitution of the United States of America.
The Declaration of Independence stated grievances against the king of Great Britain “certain unalienable rights”
The Articles of Confederation established the first form of national government for the independent states
created weak central government (e.g., no power to tax or enforce laws);
The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom stated freedom of religious beliefs and opinions.
The Constitution of the United States of America, -established the structure of the United States government
Bill of Rights -protected the fundamental freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition.
The Preamble to the Constitution of the United States of America begins, “We the People,”
To form a more perfect union To make the nation better
To establish justice created a court system
To ensure domestic tranquility To keep the peace in the country
To provide for the common defense To build a strong military
To promote the general welfare To care after the sick, old, and poor
To date, there are 27 amendments in the Constitution of the United States.
US Constitution Amendment process: – Proposal: action by Congress or convention – Ratification: by the states
Virginia Constitution Amendment process: – Proposal: action by General Assembly or convention – Ratification: by voters of Virginia
The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America defines citizenship.
“All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and the state wherein they reside.”
Means of obtaining citizenship By birth and By naturalization (14th Amendment)
Immigration and naturalization, particularly in the twentieth century, have led to an increasingly diverse society.
To become a citizen through naturalization, a person must demonstrate knowledge of American history and principles and the ability to read, speak, and write words in ordinary usage in the English language.
Petition: Individuals have the right to make their views known to public officials.
Fourteenth Amendment Extends the due process protection to actions of the states
Duties of citizens (Duty = Jail) Obey laws, Pay taxes, Serve in the armed forces, if called, Serve on a jury or as a witness in court
Civic responsibilities are fulfilled by choice; they are voluntary.
Responsibilities of citizens Register and vote, Keep informed regarding current issues
Ways for citizens to participate in community service Volunteer to support democratic institutions.
Unalienable Rights Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness
Tyrant A dictator or abusive king
Self-Evident Obvious
Grievances Complaints of abuses
abolish Get rid of
Dissolve Disappear or end
Checks and balances Each of the three branches of the national government limits the exercise of power by the other two branches.
Taxes Legislative Branch Raises revenue through _______________ and other levies
Bicameral Consists of the Congress, ____________a legislature consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate
Unconstitutional The courts check Congress when judges/justices declare acts of Congress to be _______________.
Legislative ____________branch Makes the laws of the nation
State of the Union Address The President can propose legislation in this annual Speech to Congress
Judges The Executive Branch Appoints cabinet officers, ambassadors, and federal _______________
Voting The lawmaking process in Congress _______________ on the bill in each house
Foreign Legislative Branch Regulates interstate and _______________ trade
Articles Separation of powers The Constitution of the United States in _______________ I, II, and III defines the powers of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the national government.
Problems The lawmaking process in Congress Elected officials in Congress write laws and take action in response to _______________ or issues.
Opportunity Cost is what is given up when a choice is made—i.e., the highest valued alternative is forgone. Individuals must consider the value of what is given up when making a choice.
antitrust Legislation Ways the government promotes marketplace competition enforcing ____________ ____________ to discourage the development of monopolies
Services Nations trade To buy goods and ____________ at a lower cost or a lower opportunity cost
Economic Choice is selection of an item or action from a set of possible alternatives. Individuals must choose or make decisions about desired goods and services because these goods and services are limited.
Jobs Nations trade To create ____________
Price is the amount of money exchanged for a good or service. Interaction of supply and demand determines price. Price determines who acquires goods and services.
Precedents Economic decisions are based on custom and historical ___________.
Incentives are things that incite or motivate. Incentives are used to change economic behavior.
Global Trade Ways the government promotes marketplace competition engaging in ____________ ____________
Currency The three types of money generally used in the United States are
Resources are factors of production that are used in the production of goods and services. Types of resources are natural, human, capital, and entrepreneurship.
Countries Nations trade To sell goods and services to other
Ability People often perform the same type of work as their parents and grandparents, regardless of ___________ or potential.
Federal Reserve As the central bank of the United States, the _____________
Free Market a mixed economy, Government’s role is greater than in a __________ __________ economy and less than in a command economy.
Demand Prices are determined by supply and __________ as buyers and sellers interact in the marketplace.
Global Economy ____________ __________: Worldwide markets in which the buying and selling of goods and services by all nations takes place
Consumption is the using of goods and services.
purchased Consumer preferences and price determine what is ___________and consumed.
Corporation ______________: A form of business organization that is authorized by law to act as a legal entity regardless of the number of owners.
FTC Federal Trade Commission
EPA Environmental Protection Agency)
FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
Government Command economy Central ownership (usually by _________) of property/resources
Decreased ___________government spending may result in lower taxes.
Legal Consumers may take __________ action against violations of consumer rights.
Demand is the amount of a good or service that consumers are willing and able to buy at a certain price.
Supply is the amount of a good or service that producers are willing and able to sell at a certain price.
Production is the combining of human, natural, capital, and entrepreneurship resources to make goods or provide services. Resources available and consumer preferences determine what is produced.
Borrowing Increased government borrowing reduces funds available for ___________by individuals and businesses;
Free market economy Private ownership of property/resources
Taxes Increased government spending may result in higher ___________;
Partnership ______________: A form of business organization with two or more owners who share the risks and the profits.
Sovereignty Consumer __________: Consumers determine through purchases what goods and services will be produced. Government involvement in the economy is limited.
The 16th Amendment authorizes Congress to tax personal and business incomes.
Competition Rivalry between producers and/or between sellers of a good or service usually results in better goods and services at lower prices.
Technology Innovations in ____________ (e.g., the Internet) contribute to the global flow of information, capital, goods, and services.
public goods and services Governments use tax revenue from individuals and businesses to provide .
Businesses ______________ (producers) buy resources; make products that are sold to individuals, other businesses, and the government; and use the profits to buy more resources.
Mixed economy Individuals and businesses are owners and decision makers for the private sector.
Tax Revenue Ways governments pay for public goods and services
Proprietorship A form of business organization with one owner who takes all the risks and all the profits.
Interference Markets are generally allowed to operate without undue __________ from the government.
Entrepreneur is a person who takes a risk to produce and sell goods and services in search of profit
The legislative branch Consists of the Congress, a bicameral legislature consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate
Senators 2 per state
Representatives Based on a state’s population.
The legislative branch Makes the laws of the nation
The legislative branch Approves the annual budget
The legislative branch Confirms presidential appointments
The legislative branch Raises revenue through taxes and other levies
The legislative branch Regulates interstate and foreign trade
The legislative branch Declares war
The executive branch Headed by the president of the United States, the chief executive officer of the nation
The executive branch Executes the laws of the land
The executive branch Prepares the annual budget for congressional action
The executive branch Appoints cabinet officers, ambassadors, and federal judges
The executive branch Administers the federal bureaucracy
The judicial branch Consists of the federal courts, including the Supreme Court, the highest court in the land
The Supreme Court exercises the power of judicial review.
The federal courts try cases involving federal law and questions involving interpretation of the Constitution of the United States.
The Constitution of the United States in Articles I, II, and III defines the powers of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the national government.
Each of the three branches of the national government limits the exercise of power by the other two branches.
The legislative branch can override presidential vetoes
The legislative branch can impeach and convict a president.
The legislative branch can confirm or refuse to confirm federal judges/justices
The legislative branch can impeach and convict judges/justices.
The president can proposes legislation
The president can prepares an annual budget for Congress to approve
The president can call special sessions of Congress
The president can veto legislation Congress has passed.
The courts check Congress when judges/justices declare acts of Congress to be unconstitutional.
The courts check the president when judges/justices declare executive actions to be unconstitutional.
Expressed: Specifically listed in the Constitution of the United States
Implied: Used to carry out expressed powers
chief of state: Ceremonial head of the government
chief executive: Head of the executive branch of government
chief legislator: Proposer of the legislative agenda
commander-in-chief: Head of the nation’s armed forces
chief diplomat: Architect of American foreign policy
chief of party: Leader of the political party that controls the executive branch
chief citizen: Representative of all of the people.
The units of local government in Virginia are counties, towns, and cities.
Each Virginia county has an elected board of supervisors
Each Virginia county and city has an elected or appointed school board, which oversees the operation of the K–12 public schools in the county or city.
The Virginia Constitution requires that voters in every locality elect a sheriff, a clerk of the circuit court, a commissioner of revenue, and a treasurer.
All powers of local governments in Virginia are given to them by the Constitution of Virginia
The Virginia Constitution distributes power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the state government.
The Virginian legislative branch is the General Assembly,
Virginia’s bicameral legislature consists of the House of Delegates and the Virginia Senate
The Virginian executive power is exercised by the governor
The United States has a court system whose organization and jurisdiction are derived from the Constitution of the United States
U.S. Supreme Court: Justices, no jury; appellate jurisdiction; limited original jurisdiction
U.S. Court of Appeals: Judges, no jury; appellate jurisdiction
U.S. District Court: Judge, with or without jury; original jurisdiction
Virginia Supreme Court: Justices, no jury; appellate jurisdiction; limited original jurisdiction
Court of Appeals of Virginia: Judges, no jury; appellate jurisdiction to review decisions of circuit courts
Circuit court: Judge, with or without jury; original jurisdiction for felony criminal cases and for certain civil cases; appellate jurisdiction from district courts
General district court Judge, no jury; original jurisdiction for misdemeanors in civil cases generally involving lower dollar amounts
The supreme courts of the United States and Virginia determine the constitutionality of laws and acts of the executive branch of government. This power is called “judicial review.”Marbury v. Madison
The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme law of the land.
A person accused of a crime may be arrested if the police have probable cause.
The accused may be committed to jail or released on bail.
An arraignment where probable cause is reviewed, an attorney may be appointed for the defendant, and a plea is entered.
In a civil case, a court settles a disagreement between two parties to recover damages or receive compensation.
due process of law: The constitutional protection against unfair governmental actions and laws
The 5th Amendment prohibits the national government from acting in an unfair manner
The 14th Amendment prohibits state and local governments from acting in an unfair manner
Created by: erichholzshu
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