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Bone Disorders: A/P

QuestionAnswer
A condition of porous bones is known as _. Osteoporosis
Name this bone disorder: The degeneration of articular cartilage such that the bony ends touch which results in friction of bone against bone worsens the condition. Osteoarthritis; usually associated with the elderly.
Name the types of various types of treatment used to treat osteoporosis. *raloxifene (Evista), alendronate (Fosamax), (ERT-estrogen replacement therapy; low doses of estrogens) or hormone replacement therapy (HRT; a combination of estrogens and progesterone, another sex steroid)
Besides gender, name the other risk factors for developing osteoporosis *Family history of osteoporosis *European or Asian ancestry *Thin or small body build *An inactive lifestyle *Cigarette smoking *Diet low in calcium and vitamin D *more than two alcoholics drinks a day *use of certain meds
How can you prevent osteoporosis? *Adequate calcium intake *Weight bearing exercise-particularly when a woman is younger
What is the basic cause of osteoporosis? Bone resorption outpaces bone deposition.
When there is a depletion of calcium from the body because more calcium is being lost in urine, feces, and sweat than being in absorbed in the body this is a result of what condition? Osteoporosis
In osteoporosis, if calcium is not being absorbed by the body-where is it being lost? Urine, Feces, and Sweat
T or F: Osteoporosis can cause fractures in the feet, the skull and the ribs. False- hip, vertebrae, and wrists
T or F: More men suffer from osteoporosis than women. False-more women than men.
Name two reasons women suffer more from osteoporosis than men. 1. Their bones are less massive then men's 2.The production of estrogens in women decline dramatically at menopause but testerone wanes gradually, slightly for men.
Why are HRT and ERT used to help treat osteoporosis? These treatments help to increase cell metabolism in the entire body.
What is a major downfall to using HRT and ERT used to help treat osteoporosis? Increase in risk of breast cancer for women.
Name this type of bone cancer found in teenagers? Osteogenic Sarcoma
Osteogenic Sarcoma primarily affects what? Osteoblasts
When does Osteogenic Sarcoma occur? When teens are having a growth spurt.
What are the most common site affected by Osteogenic Sarcoma? The metaphyses of the femur, tibia, and humerus.
What is dangerous about Osteogenic Sarcoma in terms of spreading to other parts of the body? Metastases occur most often in lungs
What is treatment of Osteogenic Sarcoma? *Multidrug chemotherapy *removal of the malignant growth *amputation of the limb
An infection of bone is known as _. Osteomyelitis
What are the symptoms of Osteomyelitis? *High Fever *Sweating *Chills *Pain *Nausea *Pus formation *Edema *Warmth over affected bone and rigid overlying muscles
What is the cause of Osteomyelitis? Bacteria. Usually Staphylococcus aureus.
Where can the bacteria reach to affect the bone? 1. Either outside the body through open fractures, penetrating wounds, or orthopedic surgical procedures. 2.Infection via blood : abscessed teeth, burn infections, urinary tract infections, or upper respiratory tract infections *Soft tissue infections
Reduced bone mass due to a decrease in the rate of bone synthesis is known as_. Osteopenia penia=poverty
What is Osteopenia? Name an example. It is reduced bone mass due to a decrease in bone synthesis to a level too low to compensate for normal bone resorption or any decrease in bone mass below normal. An example is osteoporosis.
What is another name for King's disease? Gout or Gouty Arthritis
What disorder feels like you have pieces of glass in your joints? Gout or Gouty Arthritis
What is the cause of Gout? Gout happens when a person either 1)Produces excessive amounts of uric acid or 2) is not able to excrete as much as normal
What happens when a person produces too much uric acid as happens with Gout? There is a buildup of too much uric acid in the blood and this then reacts with sodium to form a salt called sodium urate. These salt crystals accumulate in soft tissues such as kidneys and in the cartilage of the ears and joints.
What is the salt formed when excessive amounts of uric acid react with sodium as happens in Gout? Sodium urate.
What happens in Gouty Arthritis? Sodium urate crytstals are deposited in the soft tissues of the joints.
What part of the body is most affected by Gout? (This is usually where the first symptoms appear) Gout most often affects the joints of the feet, especially at the base of the big toe.
What are symptoms of Gout? *Inflammation *Swelling *Acute Pain
Why does Gout cause inflammation, swelling and acute pain? The sodium urate crystals irritate and erode the cartilage eventually destroying all joint tissues.
What happens if Gout goes untreated? The crystals will destroy all joint tissues and the ends of the articulating bones fuse and the joint becomes immovable.
What are the treatments for Gout? pain relief meds: *Iduprofen *Naproxen *Colchicine *Cortisone followed by administration of allopurinol to keep uric acid levels low so that crystals do not form.
What treatment is administered when dealing with Gout that will keep uric acid levels low so that crystals do not form? Allopurinol
What is Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)? It is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system of the body attacks its own tissues-in this case, the body is attacking its own cartilage and joint linings.
What are the symptoms of RA? *Inflammation of the joint *Swelling *Pain *Loss of function
T or F: Rheumatoid Arthritis occurs bilaterally. True. For example, If one wrist is affected, usually the other will be affected though not to the same degree.
What is the primary symptom of RA? Inflammation of the synovial membrane.
Inflammation of the synovial membrane is the primary symptom of what disorder? Rheumatoid Arthritis
What happens if Rheumatoid Arthritis goes untreated? The membrane thickens and synovial fluid accumulates. The resulting pressure causes pain and tenderness. The membrane then produces an abnormal granulation issue called pannus that adheres to the surface of the articular cartilage and can erode
If the cartilage is destroyed in RA what happens? Fibrous tissue joins the exposed bone ends and ossifies and fuses the joint so they become immovable. This is the ultimate crippling effect of RA.
What causes the distortion of the fingers that characterizes hands of RA sufferers? The growth of granulation tissue
Created by: Bettiesailor