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BIO202-CH16-Adrenal

BIO202 - Ch 16 - Adrenal Gland - Marieb/Hoehn - RioSalado - AZ

QuestionAnswer
What's another name for suprarenal glands? Adrenal glands
Each adrenal gland are functionally two __. Endocrine glands
Name the 2 adrenal gland regions Inner adrenal medulla & adrenal cortex
The inner adrenal medulla is part of the __ NS. Sympathetic
__ are hormones synthesized from cholestrol by the adrenal __. Corticosteroids, cortex
The rate of steroid release depends on __. rate of synthesis because they are not stored in cells.
In the adrenal cortex, the zona __ has cluster cells that produce mineralocorticoids. glomerulosa
Which hormones help control balance of minerals & water in blood? Mineralocorticoids
Mineral corticoids are produced where? In the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex
Name the layer of the adrenal gland from exterior to interior. Capsule, zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, zona reticularis, & adrenal medulla
Metabolic hormones called glucocorticoids are produced where? In the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex
Which zone of adrenal cortex has linear cords of cells? Zona fasciculata - middle zone
Which zone of adrenal cotex has netlike arrangement? Zona reticularis - innermost layer of adrenal cortex.
Which zone of adrenal cortex produces small amounts of adrenal sex hormone, gonadocorticoids? Zona reticularis, however it shares its production of this hormone w/z. fasciculata.
The essentialfunction of mineralcorticoids is regulation of __ concentrations in extracellular fluids, particularily of __. electrolytes (mineral salt), Na+ & K+
__ is the most potent & accounts for more than 95% of mineralocorticoids produced. Aldosterone
Maintaining __ ion balance is aldosterone's primary job. sodium
Aldosterone reduces __ from body. excretion of Na+ - stimulates Na+ reabsorption from forming urine.
Where Na+ goes, __ follows - changing blood pressure & volume. water
Aldosterone is also secreted by __ organs to do what? Cardiovascular - acts as a paracrine (acts rapidly in same tissue where produced).
Name the 4 mechanisms that regulate aldosterone secretion. (1) renin-angiotensin mechanism, (2) plasma concentrations of K+ & Na+, (3) ACTH, & (4) ANP - atrial natriuretic peptide
What is the major regulator mechanism of aldosterone release? the renin-angiotensis mechanism
When blood pressure declines, kidneys release __ into blood that stimulates aldosterone release by glomerulosa cells. renin
__ is a plasma protein that is a potent stimulator of aldosterone release. angiotensin II
The renin-angiotensin mechanism does what? triggers aldosterone release & increases blood pressure.
How does fluctuating K+ & Na+ levels affect aldosterone release? decrease in K+ inhibits release, large decrease in Na+ increases aldosterone release.
When a person is stressed, ACTH rise in blood levels increase __. aldosterone secretions slightly
What is ANP? Atrial natriuretic peptide - hormone secreted by heart when blood pressure rises & inhibits renin-angiotensin mechanism.
ANP's overall influence is to __ blood pressure by allowing Na+ & water to __. decrease, flow out of the body in urine.
Hypersecretion of aldosterone is called __ & is typically the result of __. aldosteronism, adrenal neoplasms.
Aldosteronism results in __. (1) hypertension & adema due to Na+ & water retension, & (2) excretion of K+ - muscle weakness.
__ is a hyposecretory disease of adrenal cortex that involves deficient output of mineralcorticoids & glucocorticoids. Addison's disease
Glucocorticoids influence __ & helps resist stressors how? energy metabolism - by keeping blood glucose levels consistant & increasing action of vasoconstrictors.
Name 3 glucocorticoid hormones. Cortisone, cortisol (hydrocortisone) & corticosterone.
The basic mechanism of glucocorticoid activity on target cells is to __. modify gene activity
Cortisol (hydrocortisone) does what? provokes gluconeogenesis - formation of glucose from fats - from adipose tissue - stored proteins broken down.
What effects does cortisol have? rise in blood levels of glucose, enhances epinephrine's vasoconstrictive effects, & raise blood pressure.
Excessive glucocorticoids do what? inhibit inflammation, but depress cartilage & bone formation, immune system, changes cardio, neural & gastrointestinal function.
Cushing's syndrome is caused by __ excess. glucocorticoid - may be caused by ACTH-releasing pituitary tumor.
Name the "cushingoid signs". Swollen moon face, buffalo hump on posterior neck, bruising, & poor wound healing.
Addison's disease is caused by? Major hyposecretory disorder of cortex & includes deficits of flucocorticoids & mineralocorticoids.
Signs of Addison disease are? Loss of weight, plasma glucose & Na+ drop, K+ level rise, dehydration, & hypotension.
Testosterone & estrogens are converted from androgens made where? Adrenal cortex - gonadocorticoids.
What are the effects of adrenogenital syndrome. hypersecretion of gonadocortoids - men get very horny & women develop beard & clitoris change to small penis.
The adrenal medulla has chromaffin cells that are around sympathetic ganglionic neurons that synthesize __. the catecholamines epinephrine & norepinephrine (NE).
Name the molecular sequence from tyrosine to epinephrine. Tyrosine->dopamine->NE->epinephrine
Hypersecretion of catecholamines, pheochromocytoma, results in? Uncontrolled sympathetic NS activity - hyperglycemia, increased metabolic rate, rapid HB, palpitations, hypertension, nervousness, & sweating.
Created by: Ladystorm