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BIO202 - CH16 - Pituitary Gland - Marieb/Hoehn - RioSalado - AZ

Another name for the pituitary gland is? Hypophysis
Pituitary gland secretes at least __ hormones. 9
What connects the pituitary to the hypothalamus? the infundibulum superiorly
Posterior pituitary lobe is composed of __. Pituicytes (glia-like supporting cells) & nerve fibers.
The posterior pituitary lobe releases __. neurohormones it receives from hypothalamus-is storage area.
What comprises the neurohypophysis? Posterior lobe of pituitary plus infundibulum.
Anterior pituitary lobe (adenohypophysis) is composed of __. glandular tissue
Arterial blood is delivered to pituitary via __. hypophyseal branches of internal cartoid arteries.
Veins leaving pituitary drain into __. the dural sinuses
The posterior lobe is actually part of the __. brain
The pituitary posterior lobe is derrived from a down-growth of __ & maintains its neural connection via __. hypothalamic tissue - nerve bundle called the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
The hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract runs through the __. infundibulum
The hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract arises from which nuclei of the hypothalamus? supraoptic & paraventricular nuclei
Oxytocin is made primarily by the __ neurons. paraventricular
ADH (antidiuretic hormone) is made primarily by the __ neurons. supraoptic
The glandular anterior lobe originates from __ & is formed of __ tissue. Rathke's pouch, epithelial
What is a portal system? When capillary bed feeds into veins which feed into another capillary bed.
Via the hypophyseal portal system, releasing & inhibiting hormones circulate from ventral hypothalamus to the __. adenohypophysis
Hypothalamic regulatory hormones are __. amino acid bases, but vary in sizes from amines, to peptides, to proteins.
What is the adenohypophysis? The anterior pituitary lobe of the pituitary gland.
Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) activity is controlled by the __. hypothalamus
POMC is released by the __ & is a __. anterior pituitary - prohormone
What is a prohormone? Large molecule that is a precursor to be split enzymatically into 1 or more active hormones.
MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone) is? CNS neurotransmitter involved in control of appetite.
What are tropins/tropic hormones? Hormones that regulate secretory action of other endocrine glands.
4 of the 6 anterior pituitary hormones are __. tropins/tropic hormones - all affect via cAMP.
GH (growth hormone) is produced in the __ lobe of pituitary by cells called __. somatotrophs
GH is a __ hormone & does what? anabolic (tissue building), promotes protein synthesis & encourages use of fats for fuel.
What are somatomedins? Growth-promoting proteins produced by liver, muscle, bone & other tissues. (IGFs) - insulin-like growth factors.
IGFs (insulin-like growth factors) do what? Stimulate uptake of amino acids & sulfer, and mobilizes fats.
GHRH (growth hormone-releasing hormone) __ GH release. stimulates
GHIH (growth hormone-inhibiting hormone) __ GH release. inhibits
In the daily cycle of GH secretion, the highest level occurs when? During evening sleep
GHIH blocks GH & release of __. thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
In the gut, GHIH inhibits release of __. virtually all gastrointestinal & pancreatic secretions
Hypersecretion of GH in children results in __. gigantism
Acromegaly results when __. excessive GH secretes after epiphyseal plates have closed - enlarged extremities
Acromegaly due to GH hypersecretion results usually from an __. adenohypophyseal tumor
GH hyposecretion (deficiency) in children results in __. pituitary dwarfism
TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) is? thyrotropin - a tropic hormone that stimulates normal development & secretory activity of thyroid gland.
TSH release is triggered by __. TRH - thyrotropin - releasing hormone - a hypothalamic peptide
ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone - is also known as __ & is secreted by __. corticotropin, the adenohypophysis
ACTH stimulates the __ to release corticosteroid. adrenal cortex
ACTH release is elicited by hypothalamic CRH & has daily rhythm that peaks __. in the morning shortly before awakening
CRH release is triggered by __. fever, hypoglycemia, & stressors of all types.
FSH & LH are what kind of hormones? gonadotropins - regulate function of gonads
In both sexes, FSH stimulates __ production. sperm or egg (gamete)
Which hormone stimulates testes to make testosterone? LH
__ hormones are virtually absent from blood of prepubertal boys & girls. gonadotropins - absent
What causes release of gonadotropin? GnRH - gonadotropin-releasing hormone produced by hypothalamus
PRL (prolactin) stimulates what? Milk production by breasts - release controlled by hypothalamus
PIH (prolactin-inhibiting hormone) is now known to be __. dopamine (DA)
LH (luteinizing hormone) triggers __. ovulation
Name the 6 major hormones of anterior pituitary. FSH, TSH, GH, LH, ACTH, & PRL
Name the 2 major hormones stored in the posterior pituitary. Oxytocin & ADH
The posterior pituitary is made largly of __. axons of hypothalamic neurons
ADH influences what? Water balance in the body
Oxytocin stimulates what? Contraction of smooth muscles - uters & breasts
Oxytocin acts via the __ second messenger system. PIP-Ca2+
Name a hormone used in a positive feedback mechanism. oxytocin - uterine contractions during birth & milk ejection from breasts.
What is diuresis? Urine production
Which hypothalamic neurons monitor solute concentration of blood? Osmoreceptors
What is the alternative name for ADH? Vasopressin
ADH deficiency results in __. diabetes insipidus - output of huge amounts of urine.
What is SIADH? Syncrome of inappropriate ADH secretion - fluid retention, brain edema, weight gain, & hypo-osmolarity of blood.
Created by: Ladystorm