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BIO202 - CH16 - Cyclic AMP - Marieb/Hoehn - RioSalado - AZ

What is cyclic AMP? Intracellular 2nd messenger - mediates effects of 1st (extracellular) messenger; formed from ATP by membrane enzyme (adenylate cyclase).
Except for thyroid hormone, all amino-acid based hormones exert their signaling effects through __. intracellular 2nd messengers
Name the 3 plasma membrane components that interact in cyclic AMP (cAMP). Hormone receptor, G protein (signal transducer) & adenylate cyclase (effector enzyme)
What is the first messenger in cyclic AMP signaling? The hormones binding to its receptor
What does the binding of a hormone cause in cAMP signaling? The receptor to change shape & bind to G protein
G protein is activated as __ is displaced by high energy compound __. GDP (guanosine diphosphate), GTP (guanosine triphosphate)
G protein behaves like a light switch. It is off when __ is bound to it & on when __ binds. GDP, GTP
Activated G protein binds to what? the effector enzyme adenylate cyclase
G proteins can __ or __ adenlyate cyclase. stimulate or inhibit
If activated, adenylate cyclase generates __. cAMP (2nd messenger) from ATP
cAMP triggers activation of __. Protein Kinase A
What are protein kinases? Enzymes that phosphorylate (add phosphate group) various proteins
Active protein kinase A triggers what? Responses of target cell - opens ion channels, activates, enzymes, etc.
Each activated adenylate cyclase generates __. Large #s of cAMP molecules & can catalyze 100s of reactions.
Theoretically, one hormone molecule binding can generate __. millions of final product molecules.
cAMP is rapidly degraded by __. phosphodiesterase - intracellular enzyme
Since phosphodiesterase rapidly destroys cAMP, continued cellular activity is prompted by __. continued production of hormones.
Some G proteins inhibit adenylate cyclase & __. reduce cAMP concentration.
Created by: Ladystorm